A Study Of The Post War Japanese Binocular Industry. Eine Studie der Japanischen Fernglas Nachkriegsindustrie. Une Étude de l'industrie en Jumelles Japonaise Après la Guerre. 日本 は、双眼業界第二次世界大戦後に . В период после окончания войны японский бинокли ленности. Un Estudio de la Industria Japonesa de la Posguerra Prismáticos. Uno Studio dell’industria del Binocolo Giapponese del Dopoguerra.

Hiroshi Fukushima, a professor of the Faculty of Economics, Quantitative Economics, and Information Systems at Saga University, conducted an excellent study of the post war Japanese binocular market, entitled ”On the Formation of Production Networks of Small Binocular Manufacturers in Japan’s Early Postwar Period”. It is at the time of this writing available in English at:

http://management.kochi-tech.ac.jp/PDF/ssms2008/MPS/HiroshiFukushima.pdf

 

Professor Fukushima notes that between 1954 and 1973, Japan averaged over a 90% share of the US binocular market. He attributes that to product quality and lower prices. He notes that the competitive success was partly due to a wartime developed press-molding method of optical glass processing, which increased yield rates of optical glass processing from 40% to 80%, with attendant cost advantages, compared to machining blocks of optical glass. He further notes that price competitiveness additionally “derived mainly from a flexible manufacturing system of specialized firms which were agglomerated as a cluster in the northern part of Tokyo [Itabashi] after the war. This production system as a network was formed by small assembly and component manufacturers”. The clustered network of small binocular firms were formed from the 8,000 employees of Tokyo Kogaku who had been involved in wartime optical production. He notes that binoculars were a leading export item (together with other light machinery products like bicycles and sewing machines) in the early postwar period. And that nearly 100% of binoculars produced in Japan in the first few post war years of binocular production went to the US. And that manufacturers operated on a build to order system. We may recognize that as similar to the JIT production model. It allowed flexibility in design changes and accommodated volatile demand (dependent on the US consumer Christmas market). This is an interesting study which is well worth reading.

Text Box:  VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars. VIRTUAL MUSEUM

MARK OHNO

 

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #1

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #2

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #3

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #4

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #1

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #2

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #3

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #4

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #6

  - INTRODUCTION #1

  - INTRODUCTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #1

  - DISTRIBUTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #3

  - DISTRIBUTION #4

  - DISTRIBUTION #5

  - DISTRIBUTION #6

  - DISTRIBUTION #7

  - DISTRIBUTION #8

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #1

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #2

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #3

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #4

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND A-B

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND C-G

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND H-M

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND N-Q

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND R-S

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND T-Z

  - PHOTO GALLERY #1

  - PHOTO GALLERY #2

  - PHOTO GALLERY #3

  - PHOTO GALLERY #4

  - PHOTO GALLERY #5

  - PHOTO GALLERY #6

  - PHOTO GALLERY #7

  - PHOTO GALLERY #8

  - PHOTO GALLERY #9

  - PHOTO GALLERY # 10

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #1

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #2

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #3

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #4

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #6

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #7

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #8

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #1

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #2

  - CAN YOU REPAIR THESE?

  - REPAIR SEIZED OCULARS IF

  - COLLIMATE AND REPAIR CF

  - MORE REPAIRS #1

  - MORE REPAIRS #2

  - MORE REPAIRS #3

  - IDENTIFY THIS

  - SWAP SHOP & MISC

  - MISC

  - INDEX  

  -RESEARCH   MATERIALS #1

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #2

  - DATA BINOCULARS BRANDS

Hyperion Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period) „Hyperion“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «Hyperion» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «Hyperion» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны   мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). Hyperion ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «Hyperion» Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952. «Hyperion» Binocolo Giapponese in Epoca Postbellica (Perioda 1947-1952)

Hyperion binoculars serial number 2645. Made during Occupation period 1947-1952,Pre war characteristics. Collection of   Mark Ohno

TOR Lumion Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period).

„TOR Lumion“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «TOR Lumion» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «TOR Lumion» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны   мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). TOR Lumion ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «TOR Lumion» Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952.«TOR Lumion» Binocolo Giapponese in Epoca Postbellica

TOR Lumion binoculars serial number 2048

Made during Occupation period 1947-1952

Pre war characteristics, Collection of   Mark Ohno

Ensign Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period). „Ensign“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «Ensign» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «Ensign» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны   мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). Ensign ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «Ensign » Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952. «Ensign » Binocolo Giapponese in Epoca Postbellica (Perioda 1947-1952)

Ensign binoculars serial number #7230 with case, and also serial number #7237. Made during Occupation period 1947-1952, with Pre war characteristics.

Collection of   Mark Ohno\ ***It is entertaining to get 2 binoculars 64 years later from 2 different places that were 7 numbers apart on the original production line***

The braided cord or string used on these miniature binoculars is of a type traditionally used on many things in Japan over a long period of time. To give an example, this old divided case or inrō is for carrying herbal medicines and has a netsuke of a musician summoning bats. It was given to me on a trip to Japan by some distant relatives, and has a similar cord to that used on the binoculars, in order to hang it through a hakama or sash by the netsuke or carved button.

Documented Serial Numbers of NIKKO Mikron 6x Pre War Binoculars

我々 が知っているシリアル番号 . Nikko Mikron 6x 小型双眼鏡 . NIKKO MIKRON“ 6x Fernglas:   Seriennummern, Die Beobachtet Wurden. « NIKKO MIKRON» 6x бинокль : Серийные номера мы документально. NIKKO MIKRON» 6x Jumelles:   Les Numéros de Série Nous Avons Documenté. « NIKKO MIKRON» 6x Prismáticos:   Los Números de serie Hemos Documentado. Numeri di Serie Documentatai di Binocoli « NIKKO MIKRON» 6x pre-Guerra.

No serial number: brown, no SN, logo used pre 1930, Nikon   Corp. Collection, pre Nikko

Serial #2700 Japanese website Arrow Camera weblogs, logo used pre 1930, pre Nikko

Serial #32992 auctioned in Japan 2015

Serial #33085 observed on Japanese web site

Serial #34972 collection of Nico Wesphal, Netherlands

Serial #35197 observed on Japanese auction web site

Serial #35766 observed on Japanese auction web site

Serial #36110 collection of Mark Ohno, USA (obtained from the UK)

Serial #36541 collection of Mike Symons, BC, Canada

Serial #36711 auctioned in UK in 2011

Serial #36763 collection of Mark Ohno, USA (obtained from the UK)

Serial #36922 auctioned in UK Oct 2015

Serial #37803 collection of Mark Ohno, USA (obtained in the USA)

Serial #38842 held in collection in Japan

Serial #39208 held in collection in Japan

Serial #39236 auctioned on Ebay in the past

Serial #39268 auctioned in Japan 11/2014

Serial #39554 collection of Mark Ohno, USA (obtained from Canada)

Serial #39738 collection of Mark Ohno, USA (obtained in USA/ captured at Saipan WWII)

We thought   it might be interesting to document the serial number range of known Nikko Mikron 6 x binoculars (Asahi Optical pre Nikon). Please add information to this database if you are able. もしあなたが有能であるなら、このデータベースにインフォメーションを加えてください。 Bitte fügen Sie die Informationen zu dieser Datenbank, wenn möglich.   Veuillez fournir des informations pour cette base de données, si possible. Sírvanse proporcionar información para esta base de datos, si es possible.

miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

An Example of How Pre War Japanese Binoculars Change Ownership. Early 20th century “JOICO Victor” 6x Binoculars with an Interesting Documented History . „JOICO Victor“ 6x Fernglas von Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts mit einer interessanten dokumentierte Geschichte. Un Exemple de la Façon Dont des Jumelles Changer les Propriétaires. « JOICO Victor » 6x Jumelles du Début du 20e Siècle avec un Intéressant Historique Documenté. Ett Exempel På hur Gamla Japanska Kikare Byter Ägare. Början av 1900-talet „Joico Victor” 6x Kikare Med en Interressant Dokumenterand Historia. Un Ejemplo de Cómo los Prismáticos Cambian de Dueño. Principos del Siglo 20 « JOICO Victor » 6x Unos Prismáticos con Una Interesante Historia Documentada. Binocolo do « JOICO Victor » 6x del Primo Ventesimo Secolo con Interessante Documentazione Storica.

Pre War (conventional non miniature ) Joico Victor #4 6x binoculars with WWII Capture Documentation and spring loaded ocular shields. Serial Number 25,615 Collection of Mark Ohno

These are NOT one of the miniature reverse porro prism skeleton configuration binoculars that this website is about, and they are a binocular with a conventional body similar to WWI Zeiss models. But I like how these particular binoculars illustrate a lot of factors inherent in binocular development, and in how binoculars can change hands in all sorts of unusual ways affected by events. According to the Nikon website and Hans Braakhuis’s History of Nikon, this “Victor” model and design was inherited from Fujii Lens Seizosho when Nippon Kogaku K. K. (later named Nikon) was formed in 1917. “Victor” had been a name chosen by Fujii as an export binocular name, and the name was presumably chosen for it’s military connotations. The Fujji Victor was considered a luxury model, as it cost the equivalent of nearly 2 months wages for a junior level bank salaried staff member (salaryman). JOICO is J apan O ptical I ndustry Co , which is the literal English translation of Nippon Kogaku K. K., and was used as a brand name for a short time. The use of “JOICO Victor” as a brand was apparently criticized within Japan for not having a more Japanese derivation, and the “Victor” model was quickly renamed “Tenyu” (Help from Heaven) and was sold primarily as a military model. According to leading Nikon binocular historian Hans Braakhuis, the “JOICO” trademark was only used 1917-1921. So these pre-Nikon binoculars that I acquired at a Massachusetts gun show 25 years ago were manufactured immediately after the first World War. They are documented as having been brought home during WWII as a captured Japanese military item by Major Sherwin H, Ricker of the US 143rd Field Artillery Battalion, which was a 105mm artillery unit, and was part of the US 40th Division. It was involved in operations in Luzon and southern Philippines in 1944-1945, including the Lingayen Gulf invasion of January 1945. When Japanese troops occupied the Philippines in 1941, any binoculars that had been held by military or police units or plantation owners or the general civilian population would probably have been requisitioned, including any 1919 JOICO Victor binoculars anyone had. Similarly, when Japanese military units were formed up in Japan late in the war they probably commandeered any binoculars available domestically and suitable for military use to be used as substitute standard issue, and officers would probably bring any suitable family owned binoculars with them (they also brought family owned “Samauri” sword blades, reworked with regulation handles). US artillery majors in 1945 probably did not get many opportunities to be the first to inspect Japanese casualties, but the front line infantry troops who did so routinely sold or bartered any binoculars, swords, pistols, compasses, gold teeth or anything else that they acquired to the officers and other non front line troops eager for souvenirs. According to Charles Strasser in “The Origins of Japanese Trade Supremacy”, …”Japanese binoculars, with their superior lens coatings ...were among the most sought after trophies of American naval officers”…in WWII. US troops have always been absolutely notorious for their insatiable appetite for “captured souvenirs”. And they still are. For example, a US Afghan war vet provided me with an interesting Kevlar body armor vest made in the USA by a military contractor with dated tags written in Pashto. It was manufactured, transported to the war, was transferred to pro US allied Afghan forces, was reallocated to anti US Afghan fighters, was recaptured by US forces, and then was then brought back to the US by that US soldier as a “captured souvenir” (and all within the space of 6 months). Now that is impressive U.S. government SNAFU logistics efficiency. Anyway, similar to the travel and ownership changes with that body armor, these Joico binoculars were produced when WWI hostilities had barely ceased, were used twenty five years later by a Japanese soldier in the Philippines, presumably survived his death and passed into one or more US soldier’s hands, were brought to the United States, and probably upon that soldier’s death they were resold, came into my hands, and are now being viewed worldwide as an example of how one must never underestimate the activity of war as a factor in the redistribution of goods, particularly binoculars, and of how binoculars, including non military versions, have always been closely intertwined and influenced by various military and other geopolitical events. The history of objects is the history of people.

Ursprünge der Japanische Miniatur Fernglas

Origines des Japonais jumelles miniatures

Истоки японского миниатюрного бинокль

Los orígenes de los prismáticos Japoneses en miniatura

Nikon histories mention a similar 4x model. I have not heard of or seen a photo of a currently existing example.

日本 のミニチュアの双眼鏡の起源

Serial Number 7237

Note the close serial numbers on the two binoculars. Die Seriennummern für diese Ferngläser sind nahe bei- einander. Les numéros de série sur ces jumelles sont proches l'un de l'autre.   Серийные номера на эти бинокли, близко друг к другу.   これらの双眼鏡のシリアル番号は、ほぼ同じです。 Los números de serie de estos prismáticos son cerca una de la otra.

Serial Number 7230

US WWII in-theater souvenir stand for Japanese war trophies. Islanders and combat troops would scour the combat areas for items, and then barter them to the entrepreneur, who would resell them to rear echelon troops. Painted “Trench art” embellishments such as Japanese flags were painted on helmets and trophy skulls to make them more appealing and desirable (as in photo). Islanders also manufactured inscribed machetes as souvenirs to barter or sell to the troops.

Cloud Callout:

You promised pictures of mice and birds...not just boring miniature binoculars...

Asahi Optical Co. (Pentax): 50th Anniversary Miniature Binoculars. Asahi Optical Co.   (Pentax)“: 50-jährigen Jubiläum Miniatur Fernglas. Asahi Optical Co. (Pentax): 50e Anniversaire des Jumelles Miniatures. « Asahi Optical Co. (Pentax)»: 50- летие миниатюрные бинокль. Asahi Optiska Co. (Pentax): 50– Årsjubileum Miniatyr Kikare. 旭光学工業株式会社 ( ペンタックス株式会社 ) 50 周年記念小型双眼鏡 . « Asahi Optical Co (Pentax)» : 50° Aniversario Prismáticos en Miniatura. « Asahi Optical Co (Pentax)»: Binocolo Miniatura 50° Anniversario.

1969 was the 50th anniversary of the founding of Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., also known as Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, also known as 旭光学工業株式会社 . To recognize this occasion, Asahi Pentax produced a 6x25 reverse porro prism “M” type binocular with 50th anniversary markings.

Collection of Mark Ohno

  1969 wurde das 50jährige Jubiläum der Errichtung der „Asahi Optical Co., Ltd“ Im Jahre 1969 „Asahi Pentax “hergestellt 6x25 reverse Porro prismen „M“ geben Sie Ferngläser mit speziellen Markierungen des 50-Jährigen   Jubiläum. 1969 A été le 50e anniversaire de la fondation de «Asahi Optical Co. Ltd.» À reconnaître l'occasion, Asahi Pentax fabriqués 6x25 marche arrière prismes Porro "M" type jumelles avec 50e anniversaire marquages. 1969 Var det 50-årsdagen för grundandet av “Asahi Optical Co. Ltd.” Att erkänna tillfälle, “Asahi Pentax’ producerat en 6x25 fram porro prism "M" typ binokulära med 50-årsdag märkningar.   1969 Fue el 50o aniversario del inicio de Asahi Optical Co. Ltd. Para reconocer la ocasión, Asahi Pentax 6x25 fabricados de porro atrás «M»" tipo binocular con marcas 50o aniversario.

Occupied Japan & Post Occupation “T.O.M. Vision” Miniature Binoculars.   „T.O.M. Vision“ Mini Fernglas Während und nach der Besetzung von Japan.   «T.O.M. Vision» Jumelles Miniatures Faites Pendant et Après l'occupation du Japon. «T.O.M. Vision» миниатюрные бинокль, во время и после    оккупации Японии. “T.O.M. Vision” Miniatur Kikare Från Ockupationen och Efter Ockupationen Japan. «T.O.M. Vision» Prismticos en Miniatura Realizadas Durante y Después de la Ocupación de Japón. Giappone Occupato e Occupazione Post «T.O.M. Vision» Binocolo Miniatura.

Serial number 30,043

Made during occupation 1947-1953

Serial number 31,751

Made after occupation

Made after 1953

Hercules Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period). „Hercules“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «Hercules» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «Hercules» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны   мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). Hercules ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «Hercules» Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952. «Hercules»   Binocolo Giapponese in Epoca Postbellica (Perioda 1947-1952)

Hercules binoculars serial number 7449

Made during Occupation period

Pre war characteristics.

Collection of   Mark Ohno

“Asahi Pentax

Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Founding”

Many thanks to Haruko

for translation

Tokyo Yamafuji Pre-War Japanese Miniature Binoculars. „Tokyo Yamafuji“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan. Jumelles Miniatures de « Tokyo Yamafuji» Fabriquées Avant la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale. «Tokyo Yamafuji» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска до второй мировой войны в Японии. Tokyo Yamafuji ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます . «Tokyo Yamafuji» Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Antes de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón. . «Tokyo Yamafuji» Binocolo Giapponese Preguerra.

Tokyo Yamafuji 6x15 Binoculars, without case. No serial number present. Manufactured prior to WWII in Japan

Collection of   Mark Ohno

Collection of   Mark Ohno

The meaning of T.O.M. Co is uncertain, but might be Toho Optical Mfg Co.

Aroma Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period). „Aroma“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «Aroma» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «Aroma» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны   мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). Aroma ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «Aroma»   Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952. «Aroma» Binocolo in Miniature Giapponese del Dopoguerra (Periodo 1947-1952)

Pre-1930 MIKRONs (Earliest Nippon Kogaku logo and no Nikko brand name)

Tokyo Yamafuji Binoculars with case. ) No serial number present.

Collection of Mark Ohno

(I appreciate the help of my friend Nico Westphal of the Netherlands  

for facilitating this acquisition)

Aroma binoculars serial number 12062

Made during Occupation period

Pre war characteristics.

Collection of   Mark Ohno

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More Markings on Miniature Binoculars is a Gift of More Information. Weitere Markierungen auf Miniatur- Fernglas ist ein Geschenk Weitere Informationen. Plus de Marques sur Jumelles Miniature un Cadeau de plus d'information est. Еще Маркировка на миниатюрных Бинокли является Дар дополнительная информация. ミニチュア双眼鏡に関する詳しいマーキングは、詳細情報のギフトであります. Fler Märkning på Miniatyr Kikare är en Gåva av Mer Information. Más marcas en Prismáticos Miniatura es un Regalo de Más Información. Più Marcature sui Binocolo in Miniatura Sono un Dono di Maggiori Informazioni.

Once in a while a pair of binoculars shows up with an unusual abundance of markings. This can be quite illuminating.

Vixen 6x15 IF binoculars

The right hand prism cover has the logo for the Japanese distributor “Vixen Co Ltd”.

The front pivot has   the MSC logo of the anglicized name of   the Japanese manufacturer  

M eiji S eiko Co Ltd” also known as “ M eiji S eiko K ogaku” and

明治精工株式会社.

A prism cover has the MSK logo of the traditional name of   the Japanese manufacturer  

M eiji S eiko K ogaku” also known as “ M eiji S eiko Co Ltd” and

明治精工株式会社.

A prism cover has the JB5 manufacturer’s code of “ M eiji S eiko K ogaku”   and “Meiji Seiko Co Ltd” and 明治精工株式会社

A prism cover has a logo with “ M

KOYU ” . I do not currently know the significance and welcome suggestions.

Lt General Tomoyuki Yamashita (tiger of Malaya) reportedly owned a pair just like these and gave them away just prior to his execution in Feb. 1946.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Cord or String for Japanese Miniature Binoculars. Kabel für Japanische Miniatur Fernglas. Cordon pourJumelles Miniature Japonaises. шнур для японских миниатюрных биноклей. 日本 のミニチュア双眼鏡のコー. Sladde för Japanska Miniatyr Kikare. . Cuerda Para los Prismáticos Japoneses Miniatura. Cordone per Binocoli Giapponesi in Miniaturea.

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