United Binocular Co. Chicago ” binoculars serial number 9162, Made during Occupation period 1947-1952, marked “ made in occupied Japan”. Pre war characteristics, but note transition to use of chrome. Collection of   Mark Ohno

Text Box:  VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

 

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #1

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #2

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #3

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #4

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #1

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #2

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #3

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #4

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #6

  - INTRODUCTION #1

  - INTRODUCTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #1

  - DISTRIBUTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #3

  - DISTRIBUTION #4

  - DISTRIBUTION #5

  - DISTRIBUTION #6

  - DISTRIBUTION #7

  - DISTRIBUTION #8

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #1

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #2

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #3

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #4

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND A-B

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND C-G

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND H-M

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND N-Q

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND R-S

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND T-Z

  - PHOTO GALLERY #1

  - PHOTO GALLERY #2

  - PHOTO GALLERY #3

  - PHOTO GALLERY #4

  - PHOTO GALLERY #5

  - PHOTO GALLERY #6

  - PHOTO GALLERY #7

  - PHOTO GALLERY #8

  - PHOTO GALLERY #9

  - PHOTO GALLERY # 10

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #1

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #2

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #3

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #4

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #6

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #7

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #8

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #1

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #2

  - CAN YOU REPAIR THESE?

  - REPAIR SEIZED OCULARS IF

  - COLLIMATE AND REPAIR CF

  - MORE REPAIRS #1

  - MORE REPAIRS #2

  - MORE REPAIRS #3

  - IDENTIFY THIS

  - SWAP SHOP & MISC

  - MISC

  - INDEX  

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #1

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #2

  - DATA BINOCULARS BRANDS

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Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars. VIRTUAL MUSEUM

Ursprünge der Japanische Miniatur Fernglas

Origines des Japonais jumelles miniatures

Истоки японского миниатюрного бинокль

Los orígenes de los prismáticos Japoneses en miniatura

MARK OHNO

日本 のミニチュアの双眼鏡の起源

Archetypal Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron Binoculars Archetypal Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron Fernglässer. Jumelles Mikron des Annèes 1950 de Nippon Kogaku. Архетипических Nippon Kogaku 1950 году Микрон Бинокль. 原型日本光学 1950 年代 のミクロン双眼鏡. Arketypisk Nippon Kogaku 1950 Mikron Kikare. Archetypische Nippon Kogaku 1950 Mikron Verrekijkers. Binoculares Arquetipo Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron. «Archetypal» Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Binocolo Mikron.

Nippon Kogaku Mikron 6x Binoculars (6x15). Serial number 5041822. Collection of   Mark Ohno. Sourced in USA .

These are the classic post war Nippon Kogaku Mikron binoculars. They were manufactured around 1950-1952 during the occupation. The boxes were marked “Japan   Optical Co. Ltd.”, which was a literal English translation of “Nippon Kogaku KK’’ and “Japan Optical Co. Ltd.” was used for a short time after the war and during the occupation on box labels and literature (though not as far as I know engraved on products). These binoculars were provided with zipper soft cases in the colors of Silver, Red, Black, and Brown. The pristine binoculars illustrated above with silver zipper case also has a silver neck cord. Both binoculars and box are marked “occupied Japan”.

Miniature Binoculars Eyepieces. Okulare des Miniatur-Fernglases. Oculaires de Jumelles Miniatures. Окуляры миниатюрных биноклей. ミニチュア双眼鏡の接眼レンズ. Okular av Miniatyr Kikare. Oculairen van Miniatuur Verrekijker. Oculares de Binoculares en Miniature. Oculary do Binocolo in Miniatura.

Miniature binoculars were produced with a wide variety of eyepieces. As with all other physical descriptions of attributes and variants, the material of the eyepieces can help to define variants. After a time I came to realize visual analysis was probably inefficient and subject to errors as a method to determine and indicate the material, and particularly when some of eyepieces are in unworn condition, The nature of Japanese lacquer coatings makes it more difficult.

In order to analyze eyepieces with better accuracy, I recently (2017) sought a non destructive method to detect both ferrous and non ferrous eyepieces. I wanted to be able to distinguish plastic eyepieces from those that might be made of painted or plated brass or steel or plated or painted or anodized aluminum or zinc alloys. I recently determined that a “pin pointer” metal detector used in treasure hunting, metal detecting, and coin hunting would work well. As time permits I will retest eyepieces on binoculars in the collection to define plastic/metal content.

Plastic Eyepieces, Front, Rear, and side Views.

Brass eyepieces painted with Black Lacquer

Nickel plated brass combination eyepieces and focus rings

Plastic eyepieces

Rubber Eyepieces plus the typical focus ring configuration for rubber ring eyepieces

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MINIATUUR JAPANSE VERREKIJKERS

MINIATUROWE LORNETKI

PIENOISKOOSKA JAPANILAINEN KIIKARIT

μικροσκοπικά κιάλια

ミニチュア双眼鏡

ống nhòm mini

مناظير مصغرة اليابانيةچھوٹے جاپانی دوربین

BINÓCULOS JAPONÊS EM MINIATURA

DÛRBÎN JAPANESE XWEBIXWE

دوربین دوچشمی ژاپنی مینیاتوری

MINIATUUR JAPANESE BINOCULAERS

MINIJATURNI JAPANSKI DALEKOZOR

MINIATURNÍ JAPONSKÉ DALEKOHLEDY

MALIIT NA LARAWAN JAPANESE LARGABISTA

MINIATYURA YAPONIYA DURBIN

BINOCOLO GIAPPONESE IN MINIATURA

ỐNG NH Ò M MINIATURE NH Â T BảN

సూక్ష్మ జపనీస్ దూరదర్శిని

மினியேச்சர் ஜப்பனீஸ் தொலைநோக்கியின்

KEKERAN   JEPANG MINIATUR

کوچني د جاپان د فير

CASRIGA GHADAFI JAPANESE

MINIJATURNI JAPANSKI DALEKOZORI

MINYATI LONGVI JAPON È

L Í TIL JAPANSKA SJ Ó NAUKI

MINIAT Ü R T Á VCS Ö

Do you own one of these miniature binoculars? Send us a photo of someone looking though them and we may post it on this website. Send by email to

miniature.binoculars@gmail.com.

 

Haben Sie eines dieser Miniaturfernglasbesitzen ? Schicken Sie mir ein Foto von jemanden, wenn sie, und ich kann es auf dieser Website veröffentlichen . Per E-Mail an miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

 

Possédez-vous un de ces jumelles miniatures ? Envoyez-moi une photo de quelqu'un qui cherche si eux et je peux publier sur ce site . Envoyer par email à miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

 

あなたはこれらのミニチュア双眼鏡の 1 を所有していますか?私にそれらかかわら探し誰かの写真を送信し、私はこのウェブサイト上でそれを掲示することがあります miniature.binoculars@gmail.com に電子メールで送信します

 

Possiedi uno di questi binocoli miniatura ? Inviami una foto di qualcuno in cerca anche loro e posso postare su questo sito . Invia per e-mail a

miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

 

Vill du äger en av dessa miniatyr kikare ? Skicka mig ett foto av någon ser även dem och jag kan lägga upp den på denna webbplats . Skicka med e-post till miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

 

¿Es usted el propietario de uno de estos binoculares en miniatura ? Envíame una foto de alguien que busca , aunque ellos y puedo publicarlo en este sitio web. Enviar por correo electrónico a miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

 

Ydych chi'n berchen ar un o'r ysbienddrych bach hyn? Anfon llun o rywun yn edrych arnynt er mi ac efallai y byddaf bostio ar y wefan hon. Anfonwch e-bost at miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

Case Study of Brand Practices of Japanese Miniature Binoculars . Fallstudie von Markenprakiken von Japanischen Miniatur-Furngläsern. Étude de Cas des Pratiques de la Marque de Jumelles Miniatures. Japonaises. Социологическое исследование японских миниатюрных Бинокль Марка практики. 日本 のミニ双眼鏡ブランドの実践事例. Estudio de caso de las Prácticas de Marca de los Prismaticos Japoneses en Miniatura. Studia di Casi di Pratiche di Marca di Binocoli Giapponesi in Miniatura.

The Japanese binoculars industry consisted of “assembling manufacturers”, or contract manufacturers, who assembled   binoculars from parts manufactured by themselves, or produced for them by subsidiary contractors. They transferred those binoculars to exporters or exporting trading companies, who in turn transferred them to importers or importing distributors in various countries. They then went to wholesale distributors, and then to retailers. Sometimes these entities assumed multiple commercial roles. “Brand” names were   based on the preference of any of these entities. Details of these relationships for a particular brand name and model of binoculars is difficult to know 50 or 60 years later. But in most cases this information would not have been widely available even at the time it was occurring. Once in a while an opportunity arises which gives insights into how this all worked. Die japanische Fernglasindustrie bestand aus "Montageherstellern" oder Vertragsherstellern, die Ferngläser aus selbst gefertigten Teilen zusammensetzten oder sie von Tochterunternehmen herstellten. Sie übertrug diese Ferngläser auf Exporteure oder exportierte Handelsunternehmen, die sie wiederum an Importeure überführten oder Händler in verschiedenen Ländern einführten. Sie gingen dann zu Großhändlern und dann zu Einzelhändlern. Manchmal übernahmen diese Einheiten mehrere kommerzielle Rollen. "Marken" -Namen basieren auf der Präferenz von einer dieser Einheiten. Details dieser Beziehungen für eine bestimmte Marke und Modell des Fernglases ist schwer zu wissen, 50 oder 60 Jahre später. Aber in den meisten Fällen wären diese Informationen bis zum Zeitpunkt des Auftretens nicht weit verbreitet gewesen. In einer Weile entsteht eine Gelegenheit, die Einblicke in die Art und Weise gibt, wie das alles funktioniert. 'Industrie japonaise des jumelles était composée de «fabricants d'assemblage», ou de fabricants sous contrat, qui assemblaient des jumelles à partir de pièces fabriquées par eux-mêmes ou produites pour eux par des sous-traitants. Ils ont transféré ces jumelles à des exportateurs ou à des sociétés commerciales exportatrices, qui les ont transférées à des importateurs ou à des importateurs distributeurs dans divers pays. Ils sont ensuite allés chez les distributeurs en gros, puis chez les détaillants. Parfois, ces entités assument des rôles commerciaux multiples. Les noms de marque étaient basés sur la préférence de l'une de ces entités. Détails de ces relations pour une marque particulière et le modèle de jumelles est difficile à connaître 50 ou 60 ans plus tard. Mais dans la plupart des cas, ces informations n'auraient pas été largement disponibles même au moment où elles se produisaient. De temps en temps, une occasion se présente qui donne des idées sur la façon dont tout cela a fonctionné.   日本 の双眼鏡業界は、自社製の部品から双眼鏡を組み立てるか、または子会社の請負業者によって製作された「組立メーカー」または契約製造業者で構成されていました。彼らはこれらの双眼鏡を輸出業者または輸出商社に移し、次にそれらを輸出業者または輸出業者に輸出しています。その後、卸売業者に、次に小売業者に行きました。これらの事業体は、複数の商業的役割を担うこともありました。 「ブランド」の名前は、これらのエンティティのいずれかの設定に基づいていました。特定のブランド名と双眼鏡のモデルに関するこれらの関係の詳細は、 50 年後 または 60 年後 には分かりません。しかし、ほとんどの場合、この情報は、それが発生しているときでさえ広く利用可能ではなかったであろう。いったんこの機会がどのように働くかについての洞察を与える機会があります. Японские биноклей промышленность состояла из "сборки производителей", или контрактных производителей, которые собранными биноклей из частей, изготовленных самостоятельно, или произведенных для них вспомогательными подрядчиками. Они переносят эти бинокль экспортеров или экспортеров торговых компаний, которые в свою очередь, передал их импортеров или импортеров дистрибьюторов в различных странах. Затем они пошли к оптовым торговцам, а затем к розничным торговцам. Иногда эти объекты предполагается несколько коммерческих ролей. Названия "Марка" были основаны на предпочтения какой-либо из этих лиц. Подробности этих отношений для конкретной марки и модели биноклей трудно узнать 50 или 60 лет спустя. Но в большинстве случаев эта информация не была бы широко доступны даже в то время он был произошедшим. После того, как в какое-то время появляется возможность, которая дает понимание того, как все это работало. La industria japonesa de binoculares consistía en "fabricantes de ensamblaje", o fabricantes de contrato, que ensamblaban prismáticos a partir de piezas fabricadas por ellos mismos o producidos para ellos por contratistas subsidiarios. Den japanska kikare industrin bestod av "montering tillverkare", eller kontraktstillverkare, som samlats kikare från delar som tillverkas av dem själva eller har framställts för dem genom dotterbolag entreprenörer. De överfördes dessa kikare till exportörer eller exporterande handel företag, som i sin tur överförs dem till importörer eller importerar distributörer i olika länder. De gick sedan till partihandlare, och sedan till återförsäljare. Ibland kan dessa enheter antas flera kommersiella roller. "Varumärke" namn baserades på preferens för någon av dessa enheter. Närmare uppgifter om dessa förhållanden för ett visst märke och modell av kikare är svårt att veta 50 eller 60 år senare. Men i de flesta fall denna information inte skulle ha varit allmänt tillgängliga även vid den tidpunkt då det förekommer. Då och då tillfälle ges som ger insikter i hur detta allt fungerade. Trasladaron esos prismáticos a exportadores o empresas comerciales exportadoras, que a su vez los transfirieron a importadores o importadores de distribuidores en varios países. A continuación, fueron a distribuidores mayoristas, y luego a los minoristas. A veces estas entidades asumían múltiples funciones comerciales. Los nombres de marca se basaban en la preferencia de cualquiera de estas entidades. Detalles de estas relaciones para un nombre de marca particular y el modelo de binoculares es difícil de saber 50 o 60 años después. Pero en la mayoría de los casos esta información no habría sido ampliamente disponible incluso en el momento en que estaba ocurriendo. De vez en cuando surge una oportunidad que da una idea de cómo todo funcionó.

Manufacturer: ?

Japan Exporter: ISI (?)

USA Importer: Swift Instruments, Inc

Brand Imprint: Swift

Model: model no. 730, “Pointer” 7x18

Serial # 14-781743 silk screen markings

US Distributor: Swift through multiple wholesale distributors

Retailers: Multiple

Note: With a serial number 58,452 later than the Stoddards example, Swift had changed from rotary engraving to the cheaper silk screen markings, which are flaking off these binoculars with some markings missing.

Manufacturer: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Manufacturer code marked: JB001

Japan Exporter: ISI (?)

USA Importer: Swift instruments, Inc.

Brand Imprint: Ferrant-Dege, Inc.

Model: “Pointer” 7x18

Serial # 14-722697 engraved marking

US Distributor: No, importer contract to retailer

Retailers: Ferranti-Dege (Camera store) 1300 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Manufacturer code marked: JB001

Japan Exporter: ISI (?)

USA Importer: Swift Instruments, Inc

Brand Imprint: STODDARDS BOSTON

Model: model no. 730, 7x18

Serial # 14-723291 enraved marking

US Distributor: No, importer contract to retailer

Retailers: Stoddards Cutlery, 352 Watertown St, Newton, Massachusetts, USA

Manufacturer: Meiji Sego Kōgaku Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 明治精工株式会社

Japan Exporter: ISI (?)

USA Importer: Swift Instruments, Inc

Brand Imprint: Swift

Model: model no. 730, “Pointer” 7x18

Serial # #3-710006 engraved marking

US Distributor: Swift through multiple wholesale distributors

Retailers: Multiple

Note: Probably predates others on this page, with a 3 prefix (rather than 14 prefix) and with engraved markings.

Manufacturer: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō

Japan Exporter: ?

USA Importer: Swift Instruments, Inc

Brand Imprint: Swift

Model: model no. 709, “Sport” 6x15

Serial # 14-683093

US Distributor: Swift through multiple wholesale distributors

Retailers: Multiple

 

Manufacturer: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō

Japan Exporter: ISI (?) USA Importer: Swift Instruments, Inc

Brand Imprint: L.L. Bean, Inc

Model: model no.709, 6x15

Serial # 14-683935 engraved markings

US Distributor: No, importer contract to retailer

Retailers: L.L. Bean (outdoor outfitter) Freeport, Maine, USA

German Binoculars Market. Ferngläse markt. Marché des Jumelles Allemandes. Tyska Kikare Marknaden. Mercado de Prismaticos Aleman.

It is widely recognized how Japanese export binoculars came to dominate the US market after WWII (between 1954 and 1973 Japanese binoculars captured 90% of the US binoculars market) despite the US having a domestic binoculars manufacturing industry. And it is widely recognized how Japanese export binoculars came to dominate the UK market after the 1962-1965 Japanese binoculars importation quotas ceased, despite the UK having a domestic binoculars manufacturing industry. It seems less remarked upon how this same scenario was repeated in many other countries. By 1963 82% of all binoculars sold in Germany were Japanese (per Retrowow), despite Germany having a domestic binoculars manufacturing industry. A similar situation probably occurred in Canada, Australia, and throughout Europe. A similar thing is now occurring with Chinese manufactured binoculars.

CONTACT US WITH INFORMATION OR COMMENTS:   miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

United Post War Japanese Miniature Binoculars (1947-1952 period). „United“ Miniaturferngläser sind vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in Japan (1947-1952). Jumelles Miniatures de «United» Fabriquées Après la Deuxieme Grande Guerre Mondiale (1947-1952). «United» миниатюрные бинокль выпуска после войны мировой войны в Японии ( 1947-1953). United ミニチュア双眼鏡が2回目の世界大戦の前に日本で作られます (1947-1952). «United» Prismáticos en Miniatura Fabricados Después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en Japón 1947-1952. «United» Binocolo Giapponese in Epoca Postbellica (Perioda 1947-1952)

Disclaimers (the fine print). Kleingedruktes.   Clase de Non-responsabilite. Отказ от тветственности. Friskrivningsklausul.

Accepts no responsibility...nothing contained herein may be construed ..by Reading Further Agree to hold harmless...no direct nor Indirect nor Consequential nor Potential damages...entirely conditional upon... no warranty direct or implied...is not warranted to be accurate, factual or ...entirely conditional upon... at own risk

     All contents of this website are presented as non commercial historical information for collectors of vintage used binoculars. It is fully recognized that some of the brand names and trade names of binoculars belong to business entities, and they are used herein solely for the purposes of identification. I try to make every reasonable effort to be accurate, and in the case of any error, I am always happy to correct them. Moreover ongoing improvements and revisions will always strive to improve accuracy (and correct typos). The sole and exclusive intent of the website is to educate in a way that is entertaining. It is the nature of available information that some of it is inherently inaccurate or misleading, for any number of reasons, so it is also the nature of inferences and conclusions that some of those will not be accurate. So when I state something my undeclared preface for every statement that I make should always be assumed to be   “Until someone emails me and says that her granddad was in charge of this, and she therefore knows that everything I said is rubbish, then I believe…xxx”     It is really very difficult to present this amount of information without some typos or errors. I have corrected loads, so I have a pretty good idea others may still lurk, and have no doubt that there will be many more waiting impatiently to be created.

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An Example of AOCo / Asahi Optical Co. Binoculars Given Away as a Gift by Music Corp of America. Ein Beispiel f ϋ r AOCo-Ferngläser, die von Music Corp of America als Geschenk Vershenkt Wurden.   Une Exemple de Jumelles AOCo Offertes en Cadeau par Music Corp of America. Пример биноклей AOCo, представленных в качестве подарка music Corp of America. Music corp of America xxx による贈り物としての AOCo 双眼鏡 の例 . Een voorbeeld van AOCo-verrekijker weggegeven als cadeau door Music Corp of America. Ett Exempel på AOCo-Kikare ges Bort Som en Present av Music Corp of America. Un Ejemplo des PrismaticosAOCo Regalados por Music Corp of America.

These AOCo / Asahi Optical Co Jupiter Senior binoculars were used by MCA (Music Corporation of America) as a corporate Christmas gift in December 1958 and Happy New Year gift in January 1959, and they are marked as such, along with the same MCA globe pattern corporate logo design that Music Corporation of America is documented as using in 1958. MCA was formed in 1924, and by 1958 MCA was a top talent agency with very well known clients such as Jimmy Stuart, Rock Hudson, Doris Day, and Alfred Hitchcock. And by 1958 MCA was also a television production firm producing hit TV shows such as Wagon Train, Leave it to Beaver, GE Theater, and Armour Theater, and in addition MCS owned the Paramont Pictures pre 1950 Film Library. 1958 was a big year for MCA: in 1958 they purchased the 432 acre Universal Theater production lot, and in 1958 they also took their stock public on the New York Stock exchange.

United Binocular Co. Chicago marked binoculars serial number 9184, Made during Occupation period 1947-1952. marked made in occupied Japan ”. Pre war characteristics, but note transition to use of chrome. Also marked   Hercules ” and marked with a logo associated with that brand. Collection of   Mark Ohno

Even though these binoculars these United Binocular Co. binoculars are numbered only 22 after the similar binoculars above, they are marked differently, with the addition of the “ Hercules ” marking and with a logo associated with that brand on the right prism cover.  

In addition to being unusual in being dated, and being associate with an identified organization, they also date AOCo serial #188251 to mid/late production 1958.

Common Origin of Similar Binoculars. Gemeinsame Herkunft von Ähnlichen Ferngläsern. Origine Commune de Jumelles Similaires. Gemensam Ursprung av Liknade Kikare. Origen Com ύ n de los Prismáticos Similares. Comune Origine di Binocoli Simili.

Only a few of these miniature binoculars have unique or distinctively different features. Those that do may give insights into having a common origin. These are some early 1950’s binoculars, mostly in uncommon powers, and with both a distinctive overall shape and with distinctively shaped polished chrome prism covers that might be described as being a rounded pyramid. These binoculars were presumably made under contract by an unknown manufacturer (pre JB code era) for various importers or exporters under their respective brand names.

Distinctive prism cover

Two brands: Bittco (US. Importer L.S. Bittermann) and S & G (unknown)

Family of binoculars, L to R, S & G 9x20, Omega 15x20, Bittco 9x20, Skyline 6x18

Archetypal Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron Binoculars Archetypal Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron Fernglässer. Jumelles Mikron des Annèes 1950 de Nippon Kogaku. Архетипических Nippon Kogaku 1950 году Микрон Бинокль. 原型日本光学 1950 年代 のミクロン双眼鏡. Arketypisk Nippon Kogaku 1950 Mikron Kikare. Archetypische Nippon Kogaku 1950 Mikron Verrekijkers. Binoculares Arquetipo Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Mikron. «Archetypal» Nippon Kogaku 1950’s Binocolo Mikron.

These are the classic post war Nippon Kogaku Mikron binoculars. These particular ones were manufactured right after the occupation, perhaps 1953-1955 or so. The boxes were marked “Japan   Optical Co. Ltd.”, which was a literal English translation of “Nippon Kogaku KK’’ and “Japan Optical Co. Ltd.” was used for a short time after the war and during the occupation and right after the occupation on box labels and literature These binoculars were provided with zipper soft cases in the colors of Silver, Red, Black, and Brown. The pristine binoculars illustrated above had the brown zipper case. Both binoculars and box are marked “EP”, the marking for products for export only.

There is debate over the meaning of the “ EP ” export only markings on Japanese products, where manufacturers were allowed to deduct 80% of export goods from taxes. This made separation of domestic market and export market goods . My original research indicates that “ EP ’ almost certainly stands for “ E xport P roperty”, a defined state in US Customs Law (see the later US 26CFR1.993-3 for example). SCAPIN closely followed US precedents in setting up post WWII Japanese administration.