Words About Binoculars You May Encounter. Wörter über Ferngläser, die Sie Treffen Können. Mots sur les Jumelles que Vous Pouvez Rencontrer. Слова о биноклях, которые вы можете встретить. あなたが遭遇するかもしれない双眼鏡についての言葉. Ord om Kikare du Kan Möta . Woorden Over Een Verrekijker die u Misschien Tegenkomt. Palabras Sobre Prismaticos con los que Puede Encontrarse. Parole sul Binocolo Che Potresti Incontrare.

“BaK4”:   type of Barium Crown glass used for prisms. From German word “Baritleichkron”. See page INTRODUCTION #1 .

“BaK7”: type of Barium Crown glass used for prisms. From German word “Baritleichtkron”. “See page INTRODUCTION #1 .

“Blickwinkel”: German word for “angle of view”, usually followed by degrees of angle

“Gesichtfeld””: German word for “field of view”, usually followed feet at 1000 yards, or meters at 1,000 meters

“Kabushiki–Kaisha or K.K. ”: Japanese Rōmaji word for “company/corporation”

“Kōgaku”: Japanese Rōmaji word for “optical”

“Kōgyō”: Japanese Rōmaji word for “industries

“Leichtmetall”: German word for light alloy metal, such as aluminum or zinc alloys

“M Type”: Mikron Type (compact porro prism with prisms configured so objectives are closer together than oculars)

“Mehrfach Vergütet”: German for “multi coated” [optics]

“Optique Traitée”: French for “coated optics”

“Seisakujo” Japanese Rōmaji word for “factory”

‘Tag-Nacht” German for “day-night”

“Traitement Multicouche”: French for multicoated [optics]

“Vergütete”: German word for “coated”

“Vergütete Optik”: German phrase for “coated optics” or “coated lenses”

“Voll Vergütete”: German phrase for “fully coated”

“WaA(plus number)” German army 20th military inspection code/ Waffenamt (not on civilian or Japanese binoculars)

“Weitwinkel”: German word for “wide angle”

Binoculars Abbreviations Database (Not Companies). Fernglas: Datenbank der Abkürzungen (Nicht Firmen). Jumelles: Base de Données d'Abréviations (Pas d'Entreprises). Бинокль: база данных сокращений (не компаний). 双眼鏡:略語 のデータベース(会社ではない. Kikare: Förkortningsdatabas (Inte Företag). Verrekijker: Database met Afkortingen (Geen Bedrijven). Binoculares: Base de Datos de Abreviaturas (No Empresas). Binocolo: database di abbreviazioni (non aziende).

A is rubber A rmored

AFOV is A ngular F ield o f V iew

AG is A r g entium coated prisms

AR Coated is A nti R eflection Coated

ARD is A nti R eflective D evice (such as KillFlash® objective screens)

AaF is Barium Flint Glass

BaLK/BaCL Schott/Hoya names for Light Barium Crown Optical Glass

BaK/BaC Schott/Hoya names for Barium Crown Optical Glass from Ba ritleich k ron

BaK4/BaC4 Schott/Hoya names for Barium Crown Optical Glass type 4

BaK7/BaC7 Schott/Hoya names for Barium Crown Optical Glass type 7

BaSF/BaFD Schott/Hoya names for Dense Barium Crown Optical Glass

BCF is B ausch & Lomb type configuration/design C enter F ocus

BGA is B ausch & Lomb type rubbered G ummi a rmerung [German for rubber armor]

BI is B rightness I ndex

BIF is B ausch & Lomb type eyepiece I ndependent F ocus

BK7 Borosilicate Crown Glass

CPO Japanese export only marking

D is D ach [German designation for roof prism]

DCF is D ach [German designation for roof prism] C enter F ocus

ED is E xtra-low D ispersion glass

EP is a Japanese export only marking

FC is F ully C oated lenses

FL is F lourite or Flouride coated L enses

FMC is F ully M ulti C oated lenses

F.O.V. is F ield O f V iew

GM is G u m mi a rmerung the G erman word for rubber Armored

H are H -body type roof prism binoculars

HD is H igh D efinition as a performance description

I.F.C. is I ndependent F ocus C oated

I.F. Coated is I ndependent F ocus Coated

IPD is I nter p upilary D istance

I.S. is I mage S tabilizing

I.S.B. are I mage S tabilized B inoculars

JTII is J apan T elescopes Inspection I nstitute (passed stickers and hand tags)

LRB is L aser R angefinder B inoculars

LW is L ight W eight

MC is M ulti C oating or M ulti C oated lenses

M.C.F. is M icron design C enter F ocus [reverse porro prism design]

M.I.F . is Mi cron [design] I ndependent F ocus [reverse porro prism design]

M.L.C. is M ulti L ayered C oating  

MOA is M inute o f A ngle

M TYPE is M icron (or M ikron) Type (compact porro prism)

NVB is N ight V ision B inoculars

NVD is N ight V ision D evice

OD is O bjective D iameter

RBI is R elative B rightness I ndex

RF is R ange F inder or R ange F inding (including stadia grid)

SMC term for fully multi coated optics

SOA is S econd of A ngle

SWA is S uper W ide A ngle

W is W ide Angle

WA is W ide A ngle

UCF dual axis poro prism binoculars

VM is V ariable M agnification

WFMC is W ide F ield M ulti C oated

WP is W ater p roof

XW is E x tra W ide Angle

XWA is E x treme W ide A ngle

ZCF is Z eiss [ design] C enter F ocus

ZIF is Z eiss [ design] I ndependent F ocus

Text Box:     VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars.   VIRTUAL MUSEUM

 

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #1

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #2

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #3

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #4

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #1

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #2

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #3

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #4

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #6

  - INTRODUCTION #1

  - INTRODUCTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #1

  - DISTRIBUTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #3

  - DISTRIBUTION #4

  - DISTRIBUTION #5

  - DISTRIBUTION #6

  - DISTRIBUTION #7

  - DISTRIBUTION #8

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #1

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #2

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #3

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #4

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND A-B

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND C-G

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND H-M

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND N-Q

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND R-S

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND T-Z

  - PHOTO GALLERY #1

  - PHOTO GALLERY #2

  - PHOTO GALLERY #3

  - PHOTO GALLERY #4

  - PHOTO GALLERY #5

  - PHOTO GALLERY #6

  - PHOTO GALLERY #7

  - PHOTO GALLERY #8

  - PHOTO GALLERY #9

  - PHOTO GALLERY # 10

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #1

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #2

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #3

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #4

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #6

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #7

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #8

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #1

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #2

  - CAN YOU REPAIR THESE?

  - REPAIR SEIZED OCULARS IF

  - COLLIMATE AND REPAIR CF

  - MORE REPAIRS #1

  - MORE REPAIRS #2

  - MORE REPAIRS #3

  - IDENTIFY THIS

  - SWAP SHOP & MISC

  - MISC

  - INDEX  

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #1

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #2

  - DATA BINOCULARS BRANDS

Binoculars: Some Musings about Size and Magnification. Ferngläser: Einige Gedanken über Größe und Vergrößerung. Jumelles: Quelques Réflexions sur la Taille et le Grossissement. Бинокль: некоторые размышления о размере и увеличении. 双眼鏡: サイズと倍率について. Kikare: Vissa Museringar om Storlek och Förstoring. Binoculares: Algunas Reflexiones Acerca del Tamaño y la Ampliación. Binocoli: Alcuni Musing Circa Dimensione e Ingrandimento.

All people have inherent preconceived patterns of thinking, which we apply to our expectations. This allows to make useful suppositions about new things in our interactions with the world. For example we generally expect larger to equal more powerful. Bigger animal, bigger truck, bigger piece of equipment, bigger gun: our expectation is that substantially bigger probably means more powerful. As this is often the case, the assumption is reinforced. For plumbing pipe and optics a bigger diameter does usually result in more flow (liquids in the first instance and light/image transmission for the latter). But while it may seem counter intuitive, with binoculars and with optics, the relative size and length are not particularly accurate indicators of relative power (magnification). We have an odd relationship with the appeal of binoculars because they offer a mechanical enhancement of one of our most developed primary senses (sight). They create an improved version of ourselves with greater ability, and this results in some slightly odd behaviors in our interactions with binoculars. For example if you set out a pair of binoculars, it is almost as if people   can’t resist picking them up and looking through them, even when there is nothing to look at, or when it is by people with so little interest in binoculars that they do not to know which end to look through, and also by people who own binoculars and have no logical need or expectation of reward in peering through every random pair they encounter. I have around 800 pairs of binoculars and still have to stop myself from reflexively picking up and looking through junky binoculars of no real interest that I encounter. By comparison if you put out a pair of scissors people have comparatively little compulsion to “try them”. To give another example, if you hand people a pair of binoculars with a smile without saying anything most people will reflexively look through them (even strangers). Hand them some other object and they just ask questions: “Why are you handing me this?” “What is this for?” “Who are you?” Anyway before you run around trying behavioral experiments lets have some visual fun with how the size of binoculars has little relationship to their magnification in a way that shows off interesting non miniature binoculars (that the website is not really about) by comparing them to miniature Japanese binoculars ) Die Größe des ein Fernglas ist nicht zwangsläufig ein Indikator für die Leistung der Vergrößerung. Auf dem Foto alle Ferngläser haben die gleiche Vergrößerung.   La taille d'une paire de jumelles est pas nécessairement révélateur de leur puissance de grossissement. Sur la photo toutes les jumelles ont le même facteur de zoom. Размер бинокль не обязательно свидетельствует о их увеличение. На фото все бинокль имеют то же увеличение. El tamaño de un par de binoculares no es necesariamente indicativo de su ampliación en la foto todos los prismáticos tienen la misma ampliación. La dimensione di una coppia di binocoli non è necessariamente indicative del loro ingrandimento.  

Various binoculars including miniature binoculars that have exactly the same 7x power or magnification. Front Row Left to Right: Japanese civilian market 7x18 CF reverse porro prism miniature binoculars. Second Row L-R: WWII British Barr and Stroud CF41 7x 50 IF military property broad arrow marked Naval binoculars with internal filters and desiccant ports; British Barr and Stroud mid century 7x50 CF civilian binoculars without filters (Barr and Stroud is a manufacturer in Scotland); and WWII BEH Leitz German military Kreigsmarine Naval 7x50 IF (Schnellboot /E boat/ fast boat and U-boat/ submarine) rubber armored naval binoculars with desiccant ports. All binoculars are the same 7 power magnification.   Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 7-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 7 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 7 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 7 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 7 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 7 .

 

Binoculars: collection of Mark Ohno

With reference assistance from “Militärische Ferngläser   und Fernrohre in Heer , Lufwaffe und Marine” by Hans Seeger. (excellent German/English bible of military binoculars)

More binoculars including miniature binoculars that are the same 7x power. Front Row left to right: Cricket 7x18 IF binoculars; Muse Tokyo 7x15 IF   binoculars; Windsor 7x18 IF binoculars; Yoshida Thorobred 7x18 IF binoculars. Second Row L-R: 1943 military NIL (Nottingham Instruments Ltd) #5 Mk IV 7x50 IF binoculars with DD/ broad arrow Australian Dept of Defense property marks; 1943/1944   BLC code/Carl Zeiss Jena 7x50 IF Dienstglas military Kreigsmarine Naval binoculars with special eyecups and long eye relief for gas mask use; 1970’s Avimo British military L11A1 7x42 IF binoculars; WWII BLC code/Carl Zeiss Jena Dienstglas military 7x50 IF binoculars. Third Row L-R: WWII RL/Ross London #5 MkIV 7x50 IF military binoculars with desiccant caps; transitional Nippon Kogaku marked plus Nikon marked 7x50 IF rubber armored civilian binoculars; 1968-1981 NVA Nationalen Volksarmee 7x40 IF German rubber armored military binoculars with IR/ infra red illumination detector. All binoculars are the same 7 power magnification. Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 7-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 7 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 7 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 7 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 7 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 7. All binoculars collection of Mark Ohno

More binoculars including miniature binoculars that have exactly the same 7x power or magnification. Front Row left to right: Japanese civilian market Sakura 7x18 IF binoculars; Japanese civilian market Empire 7x25 CF binoculars, Japanese civilian market SunScope 7x18 binoculars. Second Row L-R: WWII German Military BLC code/Zeiss Dienstglas military U-Boat (specific model for that use) 7x50 binoculars with desiccant ports; Dutch made Swedish military property marked Nedinsco Venlo Nedelta post war 7x50 Søartilleriet (Artillery) binoculars “marine-tjenestekikkert” (navy service binoculars) with dessicant ports; pre-1950 Nikko Novar (Nippon Kogaku pre-Nikon) 7x49 binoculars. Third row L-R: US Military Fujinon M22 7x50 binoculars from a Northrup Grumman contract with laser protection coating & with kill flash objective guards & stadia (military laser protection coatings guard against targeting lasers at the cost of reduced light transmission/optical performance); civilian Fujinon 7x50 military spec binoculars, German civilian Dr Wohler Kassel Steptonar 7x50 binoculars; U.S. civilian Bauche & Lomb 7x35 binoculars. All binoculars are the same 7 power magnification. Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 7-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 7 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 7 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 7 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 7 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 7. All binoculars collection of Mark Ohno

More binoculars including miniature binoculars that have exactly the same 12x power or magnification. Counterclockwise from lower left: Japanese civilian market Super Zenith 12x25CF; WWII German Military 12x40 binoculars normally attached to Flak and Artillery Range Finding units; Japanese civilian market Lieberman & Gortz (UK brand of importer Headquarter & Supply)12x50 CF binoculars. All binoculars are the same 12 power magnification. Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 12-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 12 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 12 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 12 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 12 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 12. All binoculars collection of Mark Ohno

More binoculars including miniature binoculars that have exactly the same 10x power or magnification. Front Row Left to right: WWII German military Flakernrohr 10x80 antiaircraft binoculars with CXN code for E. Busch Rathenow with internal filters and with proper cradle and turntable; WWII German Dienstglas military 10x50 BEH code /E. Leitz binoculars; Japanese civilian market TOA Optical Co. 10x20 CF binoculars; WWII German Dienstglas military 10x50 BLC code/Zeiss binoculars; Japanese civilian market Super Zenith 10x20 CF binoculars; Second Row : British Military No 2 Mk 1 AFV (Armored Fighting Vehicle) 10 x 40 periscopic binoculars. All binoculars are the same 10 power magnification.   Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 10-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 10 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 10 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 10 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 10 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 10. All binoculars collection of Mark Ohno

Text Box:  PAGE NAVIGATION: I WANT TO SEE:

Are Miniature Japanese Binoculars Radioactive? Sind Miniatur Japanische Ferngläser Radioaktiv? Les Jumelles Japonaises Sont-elles Radioactives? Являются ли миниатюрные японские бинокли радиоактивными? 小型 の日本の双眼鏡は放射性物質ですか? Är Miniatyr Japanska Kikare Radioaktiva? Zijn Miniatuur Japanse Verrekijkers Radioactief? Sono binocoli giapponesi in Miniatura radioattivi?

In the best traditions of those supermarket tabloid stories (Aliens Have Eaten Elvis’s First Child) I probably attracted your attention. (Good analysis of this strategy is the Kissmetrics Blog). Since these Japanese miniature binoculars were produced in significant numbers in the 1950’s and 1960’s it might seem surprising that I have never been able to find any of them branded “Atomic” as many other consumer items were in the US. Of course Japan was the only country ever to have nuclear weapons used against it (in 1945 and largely as a test to see how different nuclear bomb configurations actually worked against civilian targets and topography) with the cities of Hiroshima & Nagasaki specifically chosen as not already having pesky preexisting bomb damage which might confuse the photographic measured analysis of the post nuclear blast damage radius. So perhaps a seeming lack of Japanese enthusiasm for the “Atomic” brand wasn’t surprising. Anyway given that we actually have more radioactive stuff laying around our houses than people think, I thought it might be fun to see if any miniature binoculars and other things around the house were radioactive by using a reasonably sensitive 1970’s Soviet military DP-5B ( ДП-5Б) radioactive contamination device (geiger counter). It is the same model used in the aftermath the Chernobyl unpleasantness of 1986, though these are now considered obsolete. (Got to love military surplus disposal). The clicking of these devices have been likened to cackling death ! (and with some justification). If you have miniature binoculars and the whole idea of radioactive miniature binoculars gets you all upset ...well then just pack them up and ship them to the online museum. (only half kidding). Lets see what the science actually says...

World War II US marching compass? Radioactive? Yes it is ! Nearly 3 on the x1 setting so a robust nearly 3mR/hr radioactivity. Radium is in the luminescent radium paint on the pointer and dial markings. Many if not most of the women workers (radium girls) who hand painted this stuff on watches, clocks, compasses and aircraft instruments in the first half of the 20th century became sick or died from it, probably including the person who painted this compass. The inventor of radium paint, Dr Von Sochocky, also died of radium poisoning. Every worker before 1950 licked their brushes to keep them pointed and so they were effectively eating lots of radioactive radium 226, and they tended to get disfiguring radium jaw/mandible necrosis, bone tumors and cancer as a result.  

Soviet military DP-5B ( ДП-5Б) radioactive contamination device (geiger counter or radiac meter) for beta and gamma radiation.

Pre-war US Fiesta red/orange dinnerware ? Radioactive? Yes it is ! But only around .75 mR/hr, so I guess they were already being rather stingy on the uranium ore for my ca 1940-1943 plate. Uranium 238 is in the uranium oxide glaze, with a pretty impressive 4.68 billion year half life. Some Fiesta plate can have as much as 4.5 grams of uranium/20% by weight and casn emit as much as 3-19 mR/hr. In 1943 the US Govt apparently grabbed all the uranium ore that Fiesta maker Homer Laughlin had, and diverted it to make bombs. The Laughlin company made radioactive plates from 1936-1943 and non radioactive plates with depleted uranium from the 1950’s–1972. Millions of people ate off them. But it didn’t tend to kill off their workers and so it was presumably not particularly toxic in terms of the manufacturing process.

Post war Japanese miniature binoculars ?   Radioactive? No, I couldn’t find any sign of any radioactivity on mine! But the thought is not as far fetched as it might sound. Some lens makers intentionally used thorium dioxide ThO2 to create thoriated glass (up to 40% glass content) to increase the refractive index of the lens. It can result in radiation of as much as 10mR/hr at the lens surface. The practice was not so uncommon for camera lenses from the 1960’s to the 1970’s and thorium also had some use as a surface coating to reduce glare. (And thorium 232 is currently used as fuel in some nuclear reactors). Use of thorium on binoculars lenses is apparently known, but it is not common. And while I did scan many of my binoculars I didn’t find any radioactive lenses on my miniature or full size binoculars. So I guess we can’t really expect anybody to send their binoculars to the collection because they are afraid of them being radioactive...                             

Strontium 90 test strip ? Radioactive? Yes it is ! Just over .75 on the x10 setting, so it is measuring a bit over 7.5 mR/hr. radioactivity. Strontium was used in the cathode ray tube in those boxy TVs that everybody had prior to the more recent influx of LCD/LED/plasma flat screen TVs.

“Vaseline glass” or “Uranium” green glass child’s marbles ? Radioactive? Yes they are ! But these modern marbles are rather wimpy with only about 0.4 mR/hr. radioactivity. I wonder if the schools have rules against kids bringing radioactive marbles to class?

Placing these radioactive numbers on context? Measurement is mR/hr (1/1000 rem/roentgen per hour.) In the US there is a slow change over to the European standard measure of sievert (SI), but the change is embraced in the US about as unenthusiastically as is the all pervasive refusal to use metric measurements such kilograms and liters as measurements. (except for illegal drugs and soda bottles). A repetitive cumulative annual dose of 100 mR of radiation is considered unhealthy. I understand the U.S. postal service is happy with people mailing radioactive packages of .5mR/hr measured at the package surface.

More binoculars including miniature binoculars that have exactly the same 8x power or magnification. First Row Left to Right : Japanese civilian market Perl 8x20 CF binoculars; civilian market Minox 8x20 CF binoculars; British civilian market Wray Raylux 8x30 CF binoculars; Hensoldt German army 8x30 CF rubber armored binoculars;   Leica brand (Kern factory) Swiss   military 8x30 CF rubber armored binoculars with graticule and exceptionally early production serial number of 171; Second Row Leica brand (Kern factory) Swiss   military 8x30 CF rubber armored binoculars with graticule and issue filters, covers, and monopod. All binoculars are the same 8power magnification. Alle Ferngläser sind die gleichen 8-facher Vergrößerung. Toutes les jumelles sont les mêmes 8 grossissement. Все бинокли же увеличение 8 мощность. すべての双眼鏡は、同じ 8 の拡大である. Alla kikare är samma 8 power förstoring. Todos los binoculares son la misma ampliación de potencia 8. All binoculars collection of Mark Ohno

Text Box: NAVIGATION TO ALL PAGES
TOP OF PAGE, BOX RIGHT SIDE,
OR CLICK HERE.  
Text Box:       UNDER
CONSTRUCTION
Text Box:       UNDER
CONSTRUCTION

“Vaseline glass” or “Uranium” glass child’s miniature tea or eating dish ? Radioactive? Yes it is! The uranium oxide diuranate of up to 2% by weight gives it that retro era eerie fluorescent glow under a black light (UV-A light) that everybody loves. Does the “PLENTY” on the dish mean “Plenty of Uranium” for the little tykes? Perhaps… Or maybe they should have named it “SOME” as it is only 0.6 mR/hr radioactivity.

A Test of the Importance the Brain Places on Visual Perception and Identification. Ein Test der Bedeutung des Gehirns für die Visuelle Wahrnehmung und Identifikation. Un Test de l'importance du Cerveau sur la Perception Visuelle et l'identification. Тест важности места мозга на визуальном восприятии и идентификации. Wtt test av den Viki Hjärnan Lägger på Visuell Uppfattning och Identifiering. Una Prueba de la Importancia que el Cerebro tiene en la Percepción e Identificación Visual. Un test dell'importanza che il Cervello Pone Sulla Percezione e L'identificazione Visive.

I postulate that people’s reactions and interactions with binoculars and all the resulting associated behaviors are related to the importance that the brain places on visual identification. This is probably part of the visual identification component of the cognitive process of the fight or flight response. I can demonstrate the inherent importance we place on visual identification. How many people’s faces or images of people’s faces do you think the average person has viewed directly or through media? It has to be millions, right? We simply do not commit to memory any of the things we see in the millions that we do not place some form of high priority on for identification. Take my fun challenge! I have artificially placed miniature binoculars in front of 20 faces. I bet you can recognize most of them even though the faces are partially obscured (the images are most relevant to North America/Europe in terms of cultural exposure and to middle aged and older people rather than people in their teens). My point is that if visual identification carries both a conscious and unconscious high priority, then we will probably have a conscious and unconscious affinity for devices like binoculars that enhance our natural abilities in that regard.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

11

12

13

14

15

16

ANSWERS 1. WINSTON CHURCHILL; 2. ABRAHAM LINCOLN; 3. ADOLPH HITLER; 4. MARILYNN MONROE; 5. KIM JUNG-UN; 6. PRINCESS DIANA; 7. NAPOLIAN BONAPARTE; 8. MICHAEL JACKSON; 9. BENITIO MUSSOLINI; 10. FIDEL CASTRO; 11. JOHN KENNEDY; 12. LEE HARVEY OSWALD; 13. JOHN LENNON; 14. DONALD TRUMP; 15. ALBERT EINSTEIN; 16. JACKIE CHAN; 17. BRUCE LEE 18. HUMPHREY BOGART; 19. JOSEPH STALIN; 20. ELVIS PRESLEY

17

19

20

10

18

8

6

More Examples of How binoculars Might Not Be What They Seem. Weitere Beispiele wie Ferngläser Nicht Sein Könnten, was sie Scheinen. Plus D'exemples de la Façon dont les Jumelles Pourraient ne pas être ce qu'elles Semblent être. 双眼鏡 の見え方の例 . Больше примеров того, как бинокль может не быть тем, что они видят. Fler Exempel på hur Kikare inte Skulle Vara Vad de Ser. Meer Voorbeelden van Hoe een Verrekijker Niet Kan Zijn Wat ze Lijken. Más Ejemplos de Cómo los Binoculares Podrían no Ser lo que Parecen. Altri Esempi di Come i Binocoli Potrebbero non Essere Ciò Che Sembrano.

Lets say you have two miniature Japanese binoculars, and they have brand names on them, and the brand names are the same, and so you assume they must be related (common importer or brand owner or exporter or distributor or manufacturer). Right? Well no... not necessarily. The fact is that protection for a brand (such as a trademark) is only for the country where it is registered, and only for the time period when the registration is actively renewed. And there really is no protection for a brand name used casually without a trademark. And a trademark may be a word in a particular typeface or incorporated into a design such that the same word used in another style is not an infringement. So someone else using the same word as a brand on a similar item may be doing so in a time period or in a place where there is no infringement, or using an unprotected word or design, or even if it is a technical infringement there may be nobody to effectively object for some reason. In any case if the name looks different in appearance and of a different time period or market or distribution, it may be unrelated.

NIKKO marked/branded binoculars with “ K ” logo marking indicating manufacture by contract manufacturer Omori Sogo Kogaku and with characteristics suggesting manufacture in the 1970’s or perhaps late 1960’s. Omori Sogo marked their contract produced binoculars with whatever name an importer wanted, and presumably some importer wanted “ NIKKO ”. But these can be presumed to have absolutely nothing to do with the earlier Nippon Kogaku brand “ NIKKO ”, despite any confusing or suggestive similarity.

NIKKO and MIKRON marked/branded binoculars made by Nippon Kogaku KK and with the Nippon Kogaku   NIKKO ” 2nd pattern logotype. These are of prewar manufacture. The Nikko logotype was not used after 1949, according to Nippon Kogaku and Nikon historical sources, and including period documentation by Nippon Kogaku itself, and the Nikko logo was officially replaced by a “Nippon Kogaku Tokyo” logo in 1950. Always a significant manufacturer, Nippon Kogaku/Nikon always had reasonably formalized distribution channels, especially from the 1960’s onward.

Binoculars terminology abbreviations were largely developed through common commercial or marketing usage, rather than being a lexicon developed through planning, and they are therefore more quirky and subjective. Here are some established abbreviations that you may encounter, either marked on binoculars or in specifications.