AMERICAN THERMO-WARE CO.(USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRAND (U.S. TM owner): ATCO BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: US PATENT & TRADEMARK OFFICE, NY DEPT OF STATE DIV OF CORPORATIONS, GALES “BRANDS AND THEIR COMPANIES”, OFFICIAL GAZETTE OF THE US PATENT OFFICE SEPT 1949

American Thermo-ware Company of 12-16 Warren St. NY, NY filed in New York state on Feb 14, 1901 with dissolution Sept 4, 1985. American Thermo-ware held US trademark# 7166673 from May 1954-May 1996 for ATCO for binoculars claiming first use in 1924, and held US trademark # US trademark #72075964 for “ ATCO ” in a diamond shape for binoculars and other goods from Mar 1960 to April 2001, claiming first commercial use of logo in 1951. They distributed binoculars, microscope & lab supplies, barometers, etc and were selling binoculars as early as 1910, and had filed for US trademark use of ATCO on binoculars as early as 1924 claiming use since 1915.

  ATCO logo trade mark Mar 1960

    USA     

   MARKET

J.J. VICKERS & SONS LTD. (UK)

MINIATURE BINOCULARS BRANDS (UK TM owner) SWALLOW BINOCULARS

MINIATURE BINOCULARS BRNDS: (distributed/ sales agent ) GREENKAT BINOCULARS, SWIFT BINOCULARS, SAVOY BINOCULARS,

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (UK TM owner) SWALLOW COMMANDER BINOCULARS, SEADOG BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed or sales agent) CARL ZEISS DELTRINIM & THEATRIS BINOCULARS, SWIFT SCOUT BINOCULARS, GREENKAT BINOCULARS, BECK KASSEL OZELOT BINOCULARS, ROSS BINOCULARS, OPTOMAX BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, UK (GOVT) COMPANIES HOUSE

J. J. Vickers & Sons of 80-82 Royal St. Greenwich London SE10 UK (in 1969) was founded ON1/8/1925, and still exists, listed by UK Companies House as “sales agents”. J.J. Vickers ltd held UK trademark #890297 for a logo with the word “ SWALLOW ” for optical apparatus 1966-2021, and UK trademark#1264096 for SEADOG for optical apparatus and 1986-2017 and Uk trademark # 281063 for “ SWALLOW COMMANDER ” for binoculars & telescopes 1986-2017. It is confirmed by documentation that J.J. Vickers and Sons specifically handled Savoy 7x18 miniature binoculars, and Perl 7x18 miniature binoculars, and probably other miniature binoculars, in the late 1960’s. More recent directories still list them for binoculars, but in Chatham, Kent.

Text Box:     VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars.   VIRTUAL MUSEUM

MARK OHNO

Please note: a great amount of effort has been made to try to be as accurate as possible. But   information about distribution tends to be scarce and fragmentary, and errors or misinterpretation are possible and/or probable. Please keep in mind that any errors are unintentional, and will be cheerfully corrected upon notification And that this is a not for profit attempt to document otherwise unavailable aspects of binocular history by optics enthusiasts, for the benefit of optics enthusiasts. The distinction between Japanese manufacturers, exporters, and distributors and importing country wholesale and retail distribution may be blurred, so I have been generous about inclusion.

 

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #1

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #2

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #3

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #4

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #1

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #2

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #3

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #4

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #6

  - INTRODUCTION #1

  - INTRODUCTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #1

  - DISTRIBUTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #3

  - DISTRIBUTION #4

  - DISTRIBUTION #5

  - DISTRIBUTION #6

  - DISTRIBUTION #7

  - DISTRIBUTION #8

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #1

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #2

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #3

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #4

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND A-B

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND C-G

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND H-M

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND N-Q

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND R-S

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND T-Z

  - PHOTO GALLERY #1

  - PHOTO GALLERY #2

  - PHOTO GALLERY #3

  - PHOTO GALLERY #4

  - PHOTO GALLERY #5

  - PHOTO GALLERY #6

  - PHOTO GALLERY #7

  - PHOTO GALLERY #8

  - PHOTO GALLERY #9

  - PHOTO GALLERY # 10

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #1

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #2

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #3

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #4

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #6

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #7

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #8

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #1

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #2

  - CAN YOU REPAIR THESE?

  - REPAIR SEIZED OCULARS IF

  - COLLIMATE AND REPAIR CF

  - MORE REPAIRS #1

  - MORE REPAIRS #2

  - MORE REPAIRS #3

  - IDENTIFY THIS

  - SWAP SHOP & MISC

  - MISC

  - INDEX

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #1

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #2

  - DATA BINOCULARS BRANDS

Text Box:  PAGE NAVIGATION: I WANT TO SEE:

W.HAKING ENTERPRISES LTD. (HONG KONG)

W. HAKING MARKETING, LTD.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (UK TMs owned): HALINA BINOCULARS, HAKING BINOCULARS

FULL SIZED BINOCULAR BRANDS (UK TM owned): ODYSSEY BINOCULARS, (UK TM owned): ANSCO

INDICATED PRODUCED: SKYBOLT BINOCULARS, LENTAR BINOCULARS

DOCUMENTED PRODUCED: REGENT BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCE OF INFORMATION: CAMERAPEDIA,   W. HAKING ENTERPRISES CORPORATE WEBSITE, US PATENT & TRADEMARKS OFFICE, INTERNATIONAL BRANDS AND THEIR COMPANIES (GALE 1991), FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL 41 (1963)

FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW VOL 41 (1963)

W. Haking Enterprises Ltd. of Industrial Bldg 34 Lee Chung St 10/F Chai Wan, Hong Kong was founded in 1956 as a distributor and manufacturer of cameras and binoculars, marketed items under the brands Halina and Ansco. W . Haking Enterprises Ltd. held UK trademark #756847 for “ HALINA ” for optical apparatus from August 1956 to August 2015. W. Haking also held UK trademark #853492 for a crown logo used on binoculars, monoculars, opera grasses , and photographic and cinemagraphic goods from August 1963 to August 1998. That logo appears on the Regent and Lentar binoculars of UK importer Haddenroy Ltd, and on Skybolt binoculars, linking W. Haking Enterprises to their production and/or distribution. W Haking also held US trademark #73185632 for ANSCO for binoculars 1978-2002, Canadian trademark TMDA13085 for ANSCO for binoculars 1908-2017, and EUIPO trademark for Apsilon for binoculars 1998- 2007

W. Haking Enterprises held UK trademark # 853492 from August 1963 to August 1998 for the crown above as used on binoculars, including those at right. It is often these types of very hard to find connections that give insights into the otherwise undocumented labyrinth of distribution 50 years back.

TOA OPTICAL CO., LTD., TOA KŌGAKU KŌGYŌ KABUSHIKI-GEISHA, 東亜光学株式会社

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (presumably owned): TOA OPTICAL CO. BINOCULARS,

(model name) COMET, (model name) DELUXE, (model name?) G. PATEK

PRIMARY SOURCE OF INFORMATION: JAPANESE MANUFACTURER’S CODE FOR OPTICAL PRODUCTS (ca 1959, Europa/Bill Beacom)

Toa Kogaku Co Ltd/Toa Optical Co (JB1) appeared as a manufacturer on the ca 1959 list of Japanese manufacturer codes for optical products located at 1-7 Chihaya-cho, Toshima-ku, Tokyo. They largely seem to have produced and distributed binoculars under their own name, and are observed to have made others under contract for other brand owners. There is remarkably little documentation on the company. Judging by some later styles of miniature binoculars (rubber eyecups, silk screen markings) the company was probably active at least into the 1970’s. There are a couple currently existing TOA Kogagku Co Ltd and similar entities dealing in products like microscopes, but they say they are unrelated to this earlier binocular co. when contacted.

SAUL EIG (USA)

EIG CUTLERY INC.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (U.S. TM holder) TELSTAR BINOCULARS (not to be confused with the similar Telesar)

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: US PATENT & TRADEMARK OFFICE, SUNBIZ CORP SEARCH

Saul Eig as EIG Cutlery Inc., of 2470 NW 21st St Miami Florida USA imported and sold extremely inexpensive Italian and German .22 revolvers, derringers and pistols, blank and tear gas pistols, and switchblade (automatic) knives in the USA during the 1950’s.The company was subsequently voluntarily dissolved in Jan 1985. From July 1966 to April 1970 Eig Cutlery held US trademark #72250747 for TELSTAR for binoculars & telescopes with first use in commerce in 1966. There was also a Canadian trademark #027651 from 1963 held by Kingsway Film Equip Ltd. for binoculars. At least 3 logos are observed on binoculars: a block word logo “TELSTAR” (sometimes prefaced by “L & G” on UK units (likely UK importer Lieberman & Gortz). Also a logo with stylized “TELSTAR” with two world globes” is observed on binoculars. Also a stacked lens type traditional logo with “Telstar Precision Optics”. Ownership assignment of each is not definitive. The binoculars are encountered in the Japan, UK, Canada, and in the USA, which adds to an uncertainty about the brand.

Text Box: NAVIGATION TO ALL PAGES
TOP OF PAGE, BOX RIGHT SIDE,
OR CLICK HERE.

PALLEY SUPPLY CO (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: Unknown

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: ADVERTISEMENTS

Palley Supply of 6321 San Fernando Rd., Glendale, Ca. was a mail order, catalog, and single location army surplus oriented retailer, and was active from around 1949, registered as a business entity with the state of California in Jan 1956, and probably ceased activity around 1989. They advertised imported miniature binoculars in full page ads in Popular Mechanics, Popular Science, Motor Boating, Flying, Guns, and similar magazines in the 1950’s, but the brand or brands offered are not defined or determined. But were probably AOCo/Asahi Optical binoculars.

CONTACT US WITH INFORMATION OR COMMENTS:   miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

CONTACT US WITH INFORMATION OR COMMENTS:   miniature.binoculars@gmail.com

1950 Palley Supply Advertisement

COAST INSTRUMENT INC. (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: BUSHNELL BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: ADVERTISEMENTS

Coast Instrument Inc. of 4811 Long Beach Blvd, Long Beach Ca. and also 2076 Cherry St. Long Beach Ca. was best known as a retail and catalog and mail order supplier of Newtonian reflector astronomical telescopes in the 1950’s. They sold telescopes and accessories under brands like Treckerscope, Pathfinder, Ortho-Star, and Hydro-Glide. But Coast instrument was also a mail order and retail dealer of Bushnell binoculars, as can be seen in the photo at right and ads at right and below. They do not appear to have been incorporated in Ca.

1955

1956

1952

BERKELEY SCIENTIFIC (CANADA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (owned?) BERKELEY SCIENTIFIC   BINOCULARS (owned) WOLF BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: CANADIAN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTIES OFFICE, VARIOUS ADS

Berkeley Scientific listed at 540 Yonge St. and 81 Portland St. in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is observed to have been active in the 1970’s and advertised themselves as a catalog retailer of binoculars, telescopes, microscopes, and scientific apparatus. They filed a 4/27/1977 Canadian trademark# TMA229847 (apl 0409999) for WOLF BINOCULARS, which may or may not cover the observed Wolf miniature binoculars.

CANADA

       MARKET

WESTCHESTER SALES (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: UNKNOWN

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: VARIOUS ADS

Westchester Sales of Larchmont N.Y. was a mail order binoculars retailer advertising around 1953.

    USA     

   MARKET

    USA     

   MARKET

    USA     

   MARKET

    USA     

   MARKET

1953 Westchester Sales Advertisement

TOKYO KOGAKU KIKAI KABUSHIKIKAISHA (JAPAN)

TOKYO OPTICAL CO. LTD., 東京光学機械㈱

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (owned): TOPCON

FULL SIZED BINOCULAR BRANDS (owned): TOPCON

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: CAMERAPEDIA, WIKIPEDIA

Tōkyō Kōgaku Kikai K.K. / 東京光学機械㈱ / Tokyo Optical Company was founded in 1932 primarily in order to manufacture surveying, camera and surveying instruments for the Japanese army in two factories. After WWII in 1945 they reopened a factory for production of civilian cameras, surveying instruments, and added medical instruments in 1947. The “Topcon” brand which appeared around 1953 and evolved from a “Topco” brand derived from T okyo Op tical Co. The “Topcon” camera brand and “Topcor” camera lens brand (1954)mirrored Nippon Kogaku’s ‘Nikon’ camera branding and ‘Nikkor” lens branding pattern. Eventually Tokyo Optical Co adopted the better known brand name and became Topcon Corporation and today is a multi national corporation with many subsidiaries and acquisitions around the world with products in many additional fields including medical lasers & instruments, navigations systems, 3 D inspection technologies, mobile communications, agricultural technologies, GPS & navigation, and machine control.

Tokyo Optical Co Ltd. Logo observed on (full size) Topcon brand binoculars.

Distribution of Japanese Miniature Binoculars. Miniatur Fernglas Verteilung. Jumelles Miniature Distribution. Миниатюрные бинокли распределения. 小型双眼鏡配布 . Miniatyr Kikare Distribution. Prismáticos en Miniatura Distribución. Distribuzione dei Binocoli Giapponesi Miniatura.

SWIFT & BLEAKLEY PTY. LTD (AUSTRALIA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (imported/distributed): YASHICA

FULL SIZED BINOCULAR BRANDS (imported/distributed): YASHICA, PROBABLY CANNON

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: SWIFT & BLEAKLEY PTY 1962 CATALOG, AUSTRALIAN PARLIAMENT PROCEEDINGS DEC. 3 1965

Swift & Bleakley Pty was the Australian importer and distributor for YASHICA cameras and binoculars and for Canon products in the 1960’s and perhaps other decades, and was described as an “importer, agent, distributor” located in Sydney NSW, and with public mention spanning at least 1956-1975 and NATO indication it merged into another co.

AUSTRALIA

       MARKET

After delivering hundreds of binoculars to me, I got my post man to pose with a pair...

BENNETT BROTHERS INC. (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (handled): BINOLUX

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: BENNETT BROTHERS BLUE BOOK (Catalog)

    USA     

   MARKET

Bennett Brothers of 104 East 25th St, NY, NY was a catalog retailer in the 1970’s. The firm was originally founded in 1884 as jewelers, and was bought by the Bennet Brothers in 1906, and was selling through catalogs by the 1930’s, as well as through two NYC locations and one in Chicago. In the 1950’s and 1960’s the firm operated distribution warehouses in NYC, Chicag0 Illinois, and New Jersey. The company is still active, apparently providing corporate loyalty and awards gifts. See VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5 for catalog section on binoculars.

TROIKA GERMANY Gmbh (Germany)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: TROIKA

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: TROIKA WEBSITE

Troika Germany Gmbh of Nisterfeld 11 57629 Mueschenbach was formed in 1992 by Liudger Böll and is a distributor of giftware (keyrings, card cases, desk items, writing implements, i-products according to their website) with distribution to 70 countries and the duty free airport market.

  WORLDWIDE

           MARKETS

      UK

   MARKET

KORVETTES PRODUCTS INC. (USA)

E.J. KORVETTE, KORVETTES, SPARTANS IND. LTD.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS : (TM owner) KORVETTES, KORVETTE

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: OBSERVATION, WIKIPEDIA, RADIOMUSEUM PLEASANT FAMILY SHOPPING

Mayfair Photographic Suppliers Ltd was an importer of Japanese photographic supplies and cameras in the early 1960’s (under the UK import quota system for Japanese cameras and binoculars).and was located at 166/8 West End lane, West Hempstead NW6. It was reportedly formed 3/22/1947. In the spring of 1964 Oxley Industries of 35 Brunton St London brought the firm but continued to operate it as Mayfair Photographic Suppliers at Kildare Close, Ruislip. Middlesex   In November of 1966 Mayfair was taken over by photopia International Ltd. It is believed but not confirmed that during the 1964-1966 Oxley ownership of Mayfair binoculars were imported with the OXLEY binoculars brand on them.   The company reportedly ceased to trade around 1983.

MAYFAIR PHOTOGRAPHIC SUPPLIERS LTD (UK)

OXLEY INDUSTRIES

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (believed owned) OXLEY,

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTOMEMORABILIA.CO.UK, DUI DIL

Korvettes Poducts Inc NY NY 10001 is listed on boxes of Korvettes miniature binoculars as the distributor. Other documents show Korvettes Products Inc to be a division of Spartans Ltd. Spartans Ltd was also the parent company of retailer E.J Korvette from 1966 to 1971. EJ Korvettes was a northeast US regional discount department store chain founded in 1948. Korvettes got around the anti discounting provisions of the 1936 Robinson Patman Act (still US law but seldom enforced, and which prevents sellers from giving greater discounts to chains compared to other retailers for like volume) by handing out memberships at the door thus being an exempted “cooperative association” and setting the model for the Sams Club/ Pace/BJ’s? Costco type discount retail chain business. It is likely common parentage of both importer and retailer was advantageous in regard to the Robinson Patman act. Spartans Ind Ltd held US trademark#72300014 for Korvette for binoculars 5/26/1970-1996.

Korvettes Poducts is also documented to have been the importer of transistor radios, tennis rackets, pocket calculators, and motor oil as well as binoculars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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miniaturebinoculars.com

ATCO logo trade mark application of 1924

STODDARD’S, INC. (USA)

    USA     

   MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRAND (U.S. TM owner): STODDARD’S BINOCULARS ,(possible use or distribution) TERRAQUASCOPE BINOCULARS

FULL SIZED BINOCULAR BRANDS (U.S. TM owner): STODDARD’S BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: US PATENT & TRADEMARK OFFICE, MA SECRETARY OF STATE DIV OF CORPORATIONS

Stoddard’s, Inc. was incorporated on 12/30/1959 in Massachusetts USA as a retailer of cutlery, optics, fishing and other specialty goods in several successive Boston area locations with claimed operation in some form since 1800. Stoddards held US trademark 75701412 for “ STODDARSD’S ” for optical, cutlery, fishing, kitchen, smoking, writing, leather goods and other items 2000-2007 with first use claimed 1930, and US trademark #77347975 for the same 2007-2008, and us trademark #77907669 for the same 20010-2017, and US trademark #87522913 for the same 2017 to the present.

RONOCO BINOCULAR CO. (IRELAND)

  IRELAND

       MARKETS

      UK

   MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (believed owned, speculative) RONOCO

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (believed owned, speculative) RONOCO

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: IRELAND COMPANIES REGISTRATION OFFICE

Ronoco Binocular Co of Ballyhaunis County Mayo Ireland was registered as co # 38725 on 3/10/1963 and may be related to photographic equipment wholesaler John O’Connor   Ronoco Ltd also of Co Mayo Ireland. Believed responsible for Ronoco brand imported binoculars encountered in Ireland and the UK (speculative).

A. FRANKS LTD. (UK)

      UK

   MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (handled) A. FRANKS LTD.

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR & OPERA GLASS BRANDS (handled) CARL ZEISS JENA, LUMINA, BUSCH

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: MANCHESTER MEMOIRS, VARIOS AUCTION SITES, UK NATIONAL ARCHIVES, THE SCIENCE MUSEUM GROUP, 1897 LONDON GAZETTE, EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY

Louis Aubrey Franks was trading as L.A. Franks optician in the 1870’s but went bankrupt in 1879, and reorganized as A. Franks optician. Briefly reorganized as

A & B Franks, this partnership was dissolved on Jan 9 , 1897, and the company became A. Franks Ltd. The company was a retail and manufacturing optician, that branched out into the manufacture and importation of spectacles, microscopes, telescopes, field glasses, magic lanterns, barometers, hydrometers, plate cameras, cine projectors, slide rules, drafting sets, and even gramophone records, and later became involved in radios and demonstrated the first television in Manchester: all marketed with the Aubrey Franks and then A. Franks Manchester name engraved. At various times the company had premises at 95/97 Deansgate, 2/4 King St ,44 Market St, 46 Market St, 73 Oxford St, 12 Victoria St and 3 S. King St , and 20 Bradshaw Gate Bolton and was believed active in Manchester, Hull, and Liverpool, UK. Various pre WWII opera glasses and miniature pattern Japanese and full size German binoculars are found marked “A. Franks. Ltd” and the Science museum believed the company was active until around1950.

ALLIED TOWERS MERCHANTS LTD (CANADA) (TOWERS & BONIMART RETAIL STORES)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (Canadian tm owner ) SKYMASTER BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS (Canadian tm owner ) SKYMASTER BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: INNOVATION SCIENCE & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT CANADA, WIKIPEDIA

Allied Towers Merchants Ltd of 110 Orfus Rd Toronto Ontario Canada held Canadian word trademark # TMA166800 for SKYMASTER for binoculars from 12/1969 until expunged 1/1985, with first Canadian use claimed as 1968. Initially founded as the US Towers Mart retail store chain, the first Canadian location opened in Toronto in 1960. After the chain went bankrupt in 1963, the chain was re-formed under Allied Towers Merchants Ltd ownership as a Canadian only retail chain, with stores under the “Towers” name until 1971, when the store names changed to Bonimart. Initially each selling dept was a licensed concession. In 1990 the group was purchased by the Hudsons Bay company and merged into Zellers.

CANADA

     MARKET

APOLLO OPTIK GmbH. (GERMANY)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (Australian tm owner ) APOLLO BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS (Australian tm owner ) APOLLO BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AUSTRALIA