- GERMAN ORIGINS #1

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #2

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #3

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #4

  - GERMAN ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #1

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #2

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #3

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #4

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #5

  - JAPANESE ORIGINS #6

  - INTRODUCTION #1

  - INTRODUCTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #1

  - DISTRIBUTION #2

  - DISTRIBUTION #3

  - DISTRIBUTION #4

  - DISTRIBUTION #5

  - DISTRIBUTION #6

  - DISTRIBUTION #7

  - DISTRIBUTION #8

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #1

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #2

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #3

  - FUN ANALYZING BRANDS #4

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND A-B

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND C-G

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND H-M

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND N-Q

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND R-S

  - BINOCULARS BY BRAND T-Z

  - PHOTO GALLERY #1

  - PHOTO GALLERY #2

  - PHOTO GALLERY #3

  - PHOTO GALLERY #4

  - PHOTO GALLERY #5

  - PHOTO GALLERY #6

  - PHOTO GALLERY #7

  - PHOTO GALLERY #8

  - PHOTO GALLERY #9

  - PHOTO GALLERY # 10

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #1

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #2

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #3

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #4

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #5

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #6

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #7

  - VINTAGE ADVERTISING #8

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #1

  - ORIGINAL BOXES #2

  - CAN YOU REPAIR THESE?

  - REPAIR SEIZED OCULARS IF

  - COLLIMATE AND REPAIR CF

  - MORE REPAIRS #1

  - MORE REPAIRS #2

  - MORE REPAIRS #3

  - IDENTIFY THIS

  - SWAP SHOP & MISC

  - MISC

  - INDEX

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #1

  - RESEARCH MATERIALS #2

  - DATA BINOCULARS BRANDS

Text Box:     VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars.   VIRTUAL MUSEUM

MARK OHNO

Distribution of Japanese Miniature Binoculars . Miniatur Fernglas Verteilung. Jumelles Miniature Distribution. Миниатюрные бинокли распределения. 小型双眼鏡配布 . Miniatyr Kikare Distribution. Prismáticos en Miniatura Distribución. Distribuzione dei Binocoli Giapponesi Miniatura.

The mechanisms by which products, including binoculars, are exported, imported, and distributed through wholesale and retail channels are seldom transparent. If you don’t believe that, just take a current product that you don’t know anything about and try to define the channels of it’s path prior to your possession. There may be a number of reasons for distributors to be discreet, but among them is that they do not want to be bothered with consumer inquiries, complaints, returns, or warranty issues. To the degree that distribution channels for current products are difficult to analyze, they are much more so for 60 year old products. I have invested time in trying to research the distribution of these miniature binoculars, and I am happy to share the information. If you have additional first hand information, or if you know what additional importers and distributors were active with Japanese binoculars in the 1950’s and 1960’s and 1970’s in the US, Canada, the UK, Scandinavia, Australia, Ireland, Germany and elsewhere please send me the info at miniature.binoculars@gmail.com .

Notes on the Distribution of Brands of Binoculars & Associated Manufacturers. Annerkugen uber Marken –Verteilund und Verbundene Hersteller. Notes sur la Distribution de Marque et les Fabricants Associés. Примечания на бинокли торговой марки распределения и связанного с ней Производителей. Anvisningar för Distribution av Kikare Varumärken och Tillhörande Tillverkare.

Notas Sobre los Prismáticos Distribución y Fabricantes Asociados.

American Thermoware Company , 12-16 Warren St NYC, NY (USA), importer, distributor, brand: ATCO, (trademark owner 1959-2001) manufacturers observed of ATCO brand binoculars of this type:

-Tanaka Koki Seisakujo Inc aka: 田中光機製作所

A.P.I. s.p.a. Casella Postale 616, 50100 Firenze (Italy), distributor, brand: Pentax manufacturers observed of Pentax brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

Aristo-Tone Electronics , 235 5th Ave, NYC (USA) brand: Aristo (believed) Aristo Tone (believed) manufacturers observed of Aristo and Aristo Tone brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Kōki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Arlo Products , 68 West Merrick, Valley Stream, NY. (USA), brands: unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet

Arrow Trading Co (USA), distributor/importer, brand: Arrow manufacturers observed of Arrow brand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

Asanuma Shōkaii Tokyo (Japan) exporter, brands: Asanuma, King, manufacturers observed of Asanuma & King brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社, ( for both brands)

Ashreh Supply Corp Brooklyn NY (USA), est 1964,   brands: Ashreh,Telesar , manufacturers observed of Ashreh & Telesar brand binoculars of this type:

-Otake Optical Co aka: Otake Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 大竹光学工業株式会社 )  

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

Associated Manufacturers Agency, Nakano 6-22-10 Nakano ku Tokyo (Japan) exporter, brands: Swift, manufacturers observed of Swift brand binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Astra Trading Co , 175 5th Ave, NYC (USA) brand: Stellar (trademark owner 1982-1990), Prestiege manufacturers observed of Stellar and Prestiege brand binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Tanaka Koki Seisakujo Inc aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Kōki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

- Toa Kogaku Ltd Tokyo aka: 東亜光学株式会社

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Benjamin Allen Co , Chicago, Il (USA), catalog retailer, brand : unknown

  -No manufacturers documented yet   

Bennett Brothers Inc . 30 East Adams, Chicago Il (USA) catalog retailer, brand : unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet   

Berkey Marketing Companies , div Berkey Photo, 25-20 Brooklyn Queens Expressway, West Woodside NY. (USA) importer, distributor, brand: Scope, Luna, Luna by Scope manufacturers observed of Boots Scope & Luna brand binoculars of this type:

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Oei Kogaku Ltd aka: 応永光学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Kōki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Berns Wholesale Sporting Goods, 625 W 12th Av., Denver Co (USA) distributor, brand : Jana, manufacturers observed of Jana brand binoculars of this type:

  -No manufacturers documented yet                   

Boots the Chemist Ltd, Boots Stores Ltd : (UK) importer, chain store retailer, brand: Boots Courrier. manufacturers observed of Boots Courrier brand binoculars of this type:

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Boscov’s , (USA) , chain store retailerbrand: Tasco manufacturers observed of Tascobrand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Broadway Hale Stores , 6000 S. Spring St, Los Angeles, Ca.   90014 (USA) importer, chain store retailer, brand: Centura manufacturers observed of Centura brand binoculars of this type:

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Brookstone (USA) importer, catalog retailer, brand: Brookstone, manufacturers observed of Brookstone brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Brownscope Co , 24 W 43rd St, NYC (USA) brand: Brownscope, manufacturers observed of Brownscope brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Bushnell: (USA) importer, mail order retailer, distributor, brand: Bushnell, manufacturers observed of Bushnell brand binoculars of this type (incl. parts)

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

Camera Specialty Co., 705 Bronx River Rd, Bronxville, NY., brand: Edixa, manufacturers observed of Bushnell brand binoculars of this type  

-No manufacturers documented yet

Canadian Tire (Canada) retail chain store, brands: Bushnell, Crescent, Skymaster, Tasco, others

Carton Optical Industries Ltd . (Japan) founded 1930, import/export trading company from 1951. brand: Carton .(US trademark owner) manufacturers observed of Carton brand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Kōki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Century Optical Co Ltd ., 164-6 Tottenham Rd Ct, London W1 (UK) importer?/distributor. Miniature brands: Manon, Perl, Micron

manufacturers observed of Manon & Perl brand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

  -Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

Charles Frank, Edinburgh, Scotland (UK) brand: Charles Frank, Frank Nipole, Swift, Tohyoh manufacturers observed of Charles Frank brand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

Claritas Ltd. Equity House   42 Central Sq. Middlesex (UK) importer, distributor, brands: Solus, Hilkinson. Trademark owner of Solus from 1966. manufacturers observed of Solus brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Colonial Optical Co (USA), importer, distributor, brand: Mayflower, manufacturers observed of Mayflower brand binoculars of this type:

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

Compass Instrument & Optical Co. Inc. 104 E. 25th St, NY (USA): importer, distributor, brand: Binolux (trademark owner 1954-present), Compass (trademark owner 1968-1995), Crown . manufacturers observed of Binolux brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

Consumers Distributing Co. Ltd. (Canada): importer, distributor, brand: Skyline (trademark owner 1979-1993), manufacturers observed of Skyline brand binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Copitar Co Ltd 5 Chome , Nishi-Nippon, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo (Japan), manufacturer, exporter. brand: Copitar. manufacturers observed of Copitar brand binoculars of this type:

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

C.R. Kennedy (Sales) Pty Ltd , 7 Union St Brunswick Victoria 3056 (AUSTRALIA) , wholesaler, brand: Pentax manufacturers observed of Pentax brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

Curry & Paxton Ltd. 195-199 great Portland St, London W1 (UK) chain opticians 1971-1987, merged into   Boots Opticians Ltd in 1987 brands: Simor

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

CWS / Cooperative Wholesale Society (UK) , importer, retailer brand: Invincible manufacturers observed of Invincible brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Dave Cook Sporting Goods (USA) regional sporting goods chain store retailer 1924-1988 (bought by Gart in 1988) had 20 stores in Colorado USA and 1 in Casper Wyoming USA in 1988. brand Dacote, manufacturers observed of Dacote brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Dixons: see DSG International PIC

Dollond and Aitchison , 28 Old Bond St, London, W1 (UK) retail optician chain (1750-2009). In 2009 they were absorbed into the Boots The Chemist Ltd (UK) , chain,brand: Dollonds, manufacturers observed of Dollands brand binoculars of this type:           

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

DSG International PIC , Dixons Retail, Maylands Av, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP27TG (AKA Dixons) (UK) Consumer Electronics Retailer UK & Europe, brand: Prinz ( trademark owner 1968-2003), manufacturers observed of Prinz brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet, probably after period of JB markings

E. Esdaile and Sons Pty Ltd , 42 Hunter St, Sydney (Australia). Importer/distributor. Brand: Esdaile and Sons Sydney manufacturers observed of Prinz brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Edmund Scientific , Barrington, NJ (USA) , Importer & mail order retailer. Brands: Unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet

E. Hill & Co., Hilkerson Works, Potters Rd, New Barnet, Herts (UK). Miniature brands : Solus, Comet, Zenith, Merury, Olympic, Condor

-Manufacturers not compiled

Ehrenrich Photo Optical Industries Inc. (USA) ). Importer/distributor. Brand: Nippon Kogaku, Nikon, Unitron, manufacturers observed of Nippon Kogaku, Nikon, Unitron brand binoculars of this type:

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

EIG Cutlery Inc (USA) distributor, Brands: Telstar (US trademark owner)-

No manufacturers documented yet

FE Far Eastern Sales Co . 2251 West Pico Blvd Los Angeles 6, California (USA) Brands: FE Tourist, FE Commando Importer, distributor.   manufacturers observed of Tourist or Commando brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Focus Scientific , 409 Rideau St., Ottowa, Ontario (Canada) brands: Tasco, Carl wetzlar, Bushnell, Mirador, Baker

Foto Quelle : see Quelle AG

Fred Meyer Stores , Portland Oregon (USA) Supermarket retail chain based in Pacific Northwest, merged with Koeger. Brand: Gold Cup (trademark owner 1965-1989), manufacturers observed of Gold Cup brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

Gern Optic (Switzerland) Importer/distributor . brand: Wega. M anufacturers observed of Wega brand binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Oshimoto Kogaku Co.Ltd

GMC Trading AG (Gujer Meuli & Co) Hertistrasse 31, Wallisellan (Switzerland) Importer/distributor . brand: Admiral/ Admiral GMC ), Swiss trademark holder from 1983-2023 and UK trademark holder 1969-2003 . M anufacturers observed of Admiral brand binoculars of this type:

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Grafton Optical Co Ltd., 1&3 Workshop St, London EC2 (UK) importer?/distributor. Brand: Zuiho

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Greenhill and Ellis Ltd., Long House, Dominion St, London EC2 (UK) importer?/distributor. Brand: Greenkat Manufacturers observed of Greenkat brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

Greenkat Ltd, 26a St. Dustans Hall, Cheam, Surrey, SM12UE (UK) Importer/distributor. brand: Greenkat (trademark owner 1962-1993?). Greencat Ltd Co #1632477 placed into liquidation by creditors Jan. 1993 per London Gazette. Manufacturers observed of Greenkat brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

Hadenroy Ltd, 6 Bruce Grove , London N17, (UK) co founded ca 1961, dissolved 1992. brands: Simor, Regent, Panorama (trademark owner of Regent 1961-1996, of Simor 1963-1998), manufacturers observed of Simor & Regent brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Hakuba Photo Industry Co/ Sanyo Photo Supply Co (Japan) importer, distributor Brands: Hakuba, Sanyo manufacturers observed for Heiland and Hakuba & Sanyo brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Halina Marketing UK Ltd. (UK) importer, distributor. Brand: Halina

-No manufacturers documented yet

Hanimex Pty Ltd (Australia) importer, distributor. Brands: Hanimex, Fuji,   & others

-No manufacturers documented yet

Headquarter & General Supplies Ltd. (UK) importer, mail order & surplus retailer, 196/200 Coldharbor La. Loughboro Junct, London, SE5 Brand: Lieberman & Gortz

-No manufacturers documented yet

Hedeler Systemlight gmbh , Runkel (GERMANY) importer, distributor Brands: Hedler manufacturers observed for Heiland and Hedler brand binoculars of this type:

-Meiji Seko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

Heiland Pentax div of Honeywell (USA) US distributor of Asahi Optical Co & Pentax products. Brands: Asahi Optical Co, Pentax. manufacturers observed for Heiland and Heiland Pentax brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

Heron Optical Co, 23/25 KingsRd., Brentwood, Essex (UK) agent/stockist, Brands: Greenkat, Scope, Solus

Herters ( USA) importer, catalog outfitter retailer, brand: Herters, outdoors & catalog outfitter 1937-1981

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Highgate Optical & Industrial Co., 71-3 Great Portland St., London W1 (UK) importer?/distributor. Miniature brands: Scope, Belvedere, Simor, Orion

- manufacturers not tabulated

Honeywell , parent company of Heiland Pentax (USA) US distributor of Asahi Optical Co & Pentax products. Brands: Asahi Optical Co, Pentax. manufacturers observed for Honeywell brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

Hoover , 1022 S W Jackson, Portland , Oregon (USA) Mail order reseller, brand: unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet

Hoya Corporation, Hoya Kabushiki Gaisha (Japan) manufacturer/distributor of optical goods best known for camera filters

brand: Hoya. Manufacturers observed for Hoya brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Hurricane Import Co . of 70 10th St San Francisco California (USA) distributor, importer. Brands: Limer, Mirador. manufacturers observed for Limer & Mirador brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Hyoshi Optical Co (USA) Brands: HOC (probably) manufacturers observed for HOC brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

International Trade Associates (UK) brand: Milo, manufacturers observed for Milo brand binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Interphoto Corporation , Palisades Park, California 07650 (USA) importer, distributor. B rand: Lentar (trademark owner 1977-1999), manufacturers observed for Lentar brand binoculars of this type ca 1977:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Japanese Cameras Ltd, 50 Picadilly, Tunstall, Stoke on Trent, Stafs (UK). importer?/distributor. B rands: Hoya manufacturers observed for Hoya brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Jason Empire, Overland Park, Kansas, (USA) trademark holders for Jason & Empire, importer, distributor

manufacturers observed for Jason and Empire brand binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

J.J. Silber Ltd., 11 Northburgh St., London EC1. importer?/distributor. Brands: Hansa, Glanz manufacturers observed of Hansa & Glanz brand binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

J.J. Vikers & Sons , 80-92 Royal St, Greenwich, London SE10 (UK). importer?/distributor. (miniature) brands: Greenkat, Swift, Savoy, Swallow. manufacturers observed of Greenkat, Swift, Savoy, Swallow brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

- Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

J.L. Galef & Son, Inc . , 85 Chambers St., NY., 7, NY. (USA) Distributor. brand: Midget

-No manufacturers documented yet

John Baird &Son Ltd, 142 West Nile St., Glasgow (Scotland) Agents ca 1960’s/1970’s. Brand: Greenkat, Tohyoh  

-No manufacturers documented yet

John Rothery (Wholesale) Co Ltd Bedford Rd, Petersfield, Hampshire (UK) importer, distributor, brand: Bisley

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Oji Optical Machine Co. Ltd., aka:Oji Kōgaku Kikai K.K., aka: 子光学機械株式会社

Kalimar Inc. (USA) importer, distributor, St. Louis Mo. USA, established 1952, sold to Tiffin in 1999 brand , Kalimar, Kent manufacturers observed for Kalimar brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Oei Kogaku Ltd aka: 応永光学株式会社

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

Kanto Optical Co aka. Kantō Kōgaku Kabushiki Kaisha aka 関東光学株式会社 ( Japan) exporter, brands: Kanto manufacturers observed for Kalimar brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Kenco Co., Ltd. ( 株式会社 ケンコー Kabushiki-sha Kenkō ( 3-9-19 Nishi-Ochiai, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo ( Japan) exporter, brands: Kenco, Hoya, Tokina. After 1973 distributed in the USA by distributor Kenko Tokina USA Inc, 7642 Woodward dr., Huntington Beach, Ca. USA. manufacturers observed of Hoya & Kenco brand binoculars of this type:

-FurukawaKogaku Seisakujo

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

K.K. Kashimura Yōkō ( ㈱樫村洋行 ) (Japan) Chiyoda-ku Kanda Kajichō 1–3 ( 東京都千代田区神田鍛冶町 1–3distributor/ exporter, with branches in Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima and Sapporo Japan; brand: Ofuna manufacturers observed of Ofuna brand binoculars of this type:

-Ofuna Optical Instrument Co., Ltd, aka: Ofuna Kōgaku K.K., aka: 大船光学工業株式会社

Kmart (USA) importer, chain store retailer, brand: Focal (trademark owner), manufacturers observed for Focal brand binoculars of this type:

- Kamakura Koki Co. Ltd.

Korvettes/ E J Korvette/Korvettes Products Company, Spartans Industries (parent co. ca. 1966)   . (USA) discount department store, 1948-1980,brands: Korvettes, Bushnell ( trademark owner from 1968-1992), , manufacturers observed of “Korvettes” brand binoculars of this type:

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Kowa Company, LTD .  in  Chuo-ku, Tokyo brand: Lupinus. (trademark owner), manufacturers observed of Lupinus brand binoculars of this type

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Koyu Co Ltd (Japan) exporter 1954-1970 brand: Vixen. manufacturers observed for Vixen binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Kyoei Shoji Co. Ltd , 1-17-6 Ebisu-Minami, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (Japan) exporter brand: Aurora (believed). manufacturers observed for Aurora binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

Lafayette Radio Electronics Corp (USA) importer, catalog and chain store retailer brand: Lafayette, (believed) Amcon

manufacturers observed for Lafayette and Amcon binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Lamar Scientific Corp . 3412 West Jackson Blvd, Chicago, Il (USA) mail order retailer observed around 1952

-No manufacturers documented yet

Lea Jana Enterprises , 1671 East 16th St NY (USA) importer, distributor, brand: Jana , manufacturers observed for Jana binoculars of this type:

-Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Lee Robert Co 125 N Wabash Av Chicago Il (USA) importer, distributor, brand: Swift , manufacturers observed for Swift binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

  -Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Le Gran Corp 3090 Airport Way, Long Beach Ca., (USA) importer/distributor brand: Le Gran (trademark owner) manufacturers observed for Le Gran binoculars of this type:

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

Lemar Scientific , 3412 West Jackson Blvd, Chicago, Il (USA ) Mail order reseller, brand: unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet

Lenco, Inc. 2048 W. North Ave. Chicago 47, IL . (USA ) brand: brand: Gold Crest (trademark owner), manufacturers observed for Gold Crest binoculars of this type:

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

Littlewoods Ltd , Skyways House, Speke Rd, Speke, Liverpool, L701AB (UK) mail order retailer, brand: Commodore, (trademark owner from 1972). manufacturers observed for Commodore binoculars of this type:

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

LL Bean , Freeport, Maine (USA) catalog retailer, brand: LL Bean manufacturers observed for LL Bean binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka: aka. 古川光学製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

LS Bitterman Co ., 5508 First Ave South, Seattle, Wa. 98108 (USA) importer/distributor. brand: Bittco manufacturers observed for Bittco binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Manhattan Novelty Corp (USA) importer, brand: St Moritz (trademark owner 1951-1988) manufacturers observed for St Moritz binoculrs of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

Mark Cross (USA) luxury goods importer, brand: Mark Cross manufacturers observed for Mark Cross binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Masel Supply Co (USA) importer,distributor, brand: Telesar manufacturers observed for Mark Cross binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Maxwell Photo Optics (Australia) 1959-1983 importer, brand: Nippon Kogaku, Nikon manufacturers observed for Nippon Kogaku & Nikon binoculars of this type:

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

Micro World Corp 2215 E Huntington Dr Duarte Ca (USA) importer, distributor brand: Barska (trademark owner 1995-present

(Chinese made binoculars, no details known)

Miura Trading Co Ltd ., aka Miura Shoiji KK, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, (Japan) exporter/ trading co, founded 1946, brand: Manon (trademark owner 1964-2006), other brands: Shrine. manufacturers observed for Manon binoculars of this type:

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Miyagi Saken Co ( Japan) exporter brand: Prince manufacturers observed for Prince binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Montgomery Ward (USA) catalog & dept store retailer 1872-2001, brands: Wards, Plum, Adams manufacturers observed for Wards and Plum binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Musen KK Tokyo, (Japan) involved in exporting 6x15 binoculars ca 1956, brand: St Moritz, being sent to Manhattan Novelty Corp, manufacturers observed for St Moritz binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Odehnal, 680 Brandywine, Washington, DC   (USA) mail order reseller, observed ca 1971, brand: unknown manufacturers observed for binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Ōfuna Kōgaku-Kikai Seisakusho aka 大船光学機械製作所 aka Ofuna Optical Instrument Manufacturing Co. Inc. (Japan) manufacturer/ exporter   WWII-1963.   brand: Ofuna, models Heron, Woodsman manufacturers observed for binoculars of this type:

-Ofuna believed to have manufacturered their own binoculars

Okaya Optical Co (Japan) manufacturer brand: Vista manufacturers observed for Vista binoculars of this type:

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

Omiya Shahin Yohin Kabuski Kasha DBA Omiya Photo Supply Co Ltd , Jimbocho 1-chome Kanda, Chyoda-Ku Tokyo (Japan)

Trading co./distributor of photo products & cameras. brand: Hansa. Mfgrs observed for Hansa binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Optex:see SPI/Southern Precision

Optica, Kullagatan 12, Helsingborg (Sweden) optical retailer 1932-present brand: Pullux

-No manufacturers documented yet

Optical Instrument Ltd , 2-51 Shimo-mach, Ita Ku, Tokyo (Japan) manufacturer. brand: believed Ocean

-No manufacturers documented yet

Otsuka Optical co Ltd (Japan) distributor/exporter 1956present. brand: Diastar, Diastone

-No manufacturers documented yet

Parkers Distributors 3516 White Plains Rd NY (USA) distributor, brand: Swift, mfgrs observed for Swift binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社 -Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka:

-Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Peerless Camera Stores , 413 Lexington Av at 43rd St., New York (USA) Mail order reseller. brand: owner of brand Hambletonian based on patent 657,365 of 1953. Manufacturers observed for Hamiltonian binoculars of this type:

-Eikow Optical Co.

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Photo Consumer Electronic Mktg Corp, Box 2223, NY, NY10001 (USA) Distributor, brand: Zykkor manufacturers observed of Zykkor brand binoculars of this type

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

Photopia, Hemstalls La, Newcastle, Staffs, (UK) chain store retailer, brand: Zenith. manufacturers observed for Zenith binoculars of this type:

- Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Omiya Kōgaku Kikai Seisakujo, aka: 大宮光学機械製作所

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

-Yoshimoto Kogaku Co. Ltd aka: 吉本光学株式会社

Prentiss Importers , Mercury Bldg., West Los Angeles, Ca (USA) Mail order reseller. Brand: Prentiss Deluxe

-No manufacturers documented yet

Pullen Photographic Ltd ., 11 Aintree Rd, Greenford, Middlesex (UK) importer?/distributor. Brand: Nikon . Manufacturers observed of Nikon brand binoculars of this type:

  -Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

Pursers London Ltd ., (UK) importer?/distributor . Brands: Luna, Suprima, Cortina, Greenkat . Manufacturers observed of Luna, Greenkat, Suprima, Greenkat binoculars of this type:

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

Pyser-Britex (Swift) Ltd, Fircroft Way, Edenbridge, Kent, (UK) importer, brand: Swift, manufacturers observed of Swift brand binoculars of this type (ca mid 1960’s)

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Quelle AG/ Grossversandhaus Quelle Schickedanz KG . (Germany) importer, chain store retailer, brands: Revue (trademark owner), “Quelle” and “Foto-Quelle” catalog & retailer, reportedly out of business ca. 2009:   manufacturers observed of Revue brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Sankyo Koki Co Ltd (Japan ), exporter, brand: Komura. manufacturers observed for Komura binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Sanyo   Photo Supply Co (Japan ), exporter, brand: Sanyo, manufacturers observed for Sanyo binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Sans & Streiffe , 8400 Brookfield Av, Brookfield Il, also 565 West Washington Blvd., Chicago, Il. (USA) importer, distributor, brand: Sans & Streiff. Manufacturers observed of Sans & Streiffe brand binoculars of this type:

- Toa Kogaku Ltd Tokyo aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Rank Photographic , Aintree Rd, Periville, Greenford< Middlesex (UK) distributor. Brand Asahi Optical Manufacturers observed of Asahi Optical Co brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

Scientific & Technical , 507-511 London Rd, Westcliff, Essex (UK) agent ca 1972 for brands: Tohyoh, Swift, Greencat manufacturers observed of brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Sears Roebuck & Co (USA), catalog & chain store retailer, brand: Sears, Plum. manufacturers observed for Sears and Plum binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Oei Kogaku Ltd aka: 応永光学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tanaka Optical Co Ltd., aka: Tanaka Koki Seisakujo, aka: 田中光機製作所

SE Laszlo , 200 Tillery St, Brooklyn, NY, (USA) importer, distributor, brands : High Score, Yoshida Thorobred, manufacturers observed of Yoshida binoculars of this type:

-Oei Kogaku Ltd aka: 応永光学株式会社

-Omori Sogo Kogaku Kogyo Kogyo aka: 大森総合光学工業

Selsi Co Inc ., 194 Greenwood Av, Midland Park, NJ 07432 (USA) importer, distributor, brand: Selsi (trademark owner). manufacturers observed of Selsi brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Oei Kogaku Ltd aka: 応永光学株式会社

-Otake Optical Co aka: Otake Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 大竹光学工業株式会社 )  

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

The Sharper Image , US consumer products retailer 1977-2008 (chapter 11 bankruptcy) brand: Sharper Image manufacturers observed of “Korvettes” brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

SPI/Southern Precision Instruments (USA) importer/distributor. brand: Optex, SPI manufacturers observed for Optex and SPI binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Meiji Seiko Co Ltd aka: 明治精工株式会社

-Seiwa Kogaku Ltd aka: Seiwa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 清和光学株式会社

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Stanley Optical Co ., 574 5th Ave, NYC (USA), importer, mail order reseller observed ca 1951, brand: unknown

-No manufacturers documented yet

Stein Optik (Germany) importer, chain store retailer, brand: Stein Optik, Stein manufacturers observed of Stein Optik brand binoculars of this type:

-No manufacturers documented yet

Stoddard’s , Massachusetts USA (USA), single outlet retailler , brand: Stoddard’s   manufacturers observed of Stoddards brand binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Subal Optical Instrument Co (JAPAN) exporter, brand: Subal Clover manufacturers observed of Subal Clover brand binoculars of this type:

-Furukawa Kogaku Seisakujo aka. 古川光学製作所

-Toa Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Toa Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 東亜光学株式会社

Sun Scope Optical Co (USA) importer, brand: Sunscope manufacturers observed of Sunscope brand binoculars of this type:

-Akebono Optical Co., Ltd., aka: Akebono Kōgyō Seisakujo, aka: 曙光学工業

-Nippon Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha, aka: 日本工学株式会社

-Tochihara Optical Co. aka: 栃原光学株式会社

-Tokuhiro Micro Binocular Co: aka: Tokuhiro Koki Seisakusho Inc., Aka: 徳弘光機製作所株式会社

Swift and Anderson (1926-1959) Swift Instruments Inc. (1959-2006 for binoculars), Swift Sport Optics (2006 on) ( USA) importer, distributor, brand: Swift,Vega manufacturers observed of Swift & Vega brand binoculars of this type:

-Asahi Optical Co. Ltd., aka: Asahi Kōgaku Kōgyō Kabushiki-geisha aka: 旭光学工業株式会社